Olive Phenolics as c-Met Inhibitors: (-)-Oleocanthal Attenuates Cell Proliferation, Invasiveness, and Tumor Growth in Breast Cancer Models
The MET tyrosine kinase signaling pathway is upregulated in many cancers, including lung cancer. The pathway normally promotes mitosis, cell motility and cell survival; but in cancer it can also promote cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The activating ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is normally secreted by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, but can also be produced by tumor cells. MET upregulation in lung cancer is caused by overexpression and mutation. These mutations can vary with ethnicity. MET signaling affects cytoskeletal proteins such as paxillin, which participates in cell adhesion, growth and motility. Therapeutic approaches that block MET signaling are being studied, and include the use of: small interference RNA, Geldanamycin, competitive HGF homologues, decoy receptors and direct MET inhibitors such as K252a, SU11274, PHA665752 and PF2341066. It is hoped that blocking MET signaling may one day become an effective treatment for some lung cancers.