MEDLINE definitions of race and ethnicity and their application to genetic research

  title={MEDLINE definitions of race and ethnicity and their application to genetic research},
  author={Pamela L Sankar},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
  • P. Sankar
  • Published 1 June 2003
  • Medicine
  • Nature Genetics
10. Royal College of Physicians. Retention of Medical Records—with Particular Reference to Medical Genetics 2nd edn. (Royal College of Physicians Publications, London, 1998). 11. Medical Research Council. Personal Information in Medical Research. (Medical Research Council Publications, London, 2000). 12. Medical Research Council. Human Tissue and Biological Samples for Use in Research: Operational and Ethical Guidelines. (Medical Research Council Publications, London, 2001). 13. Nuffield… 

The Standardization of Race and Ethnicity in Biomedical Science Editorials and UK Biobanks

It is argued that, although a genetic concept of race and ethnicity is unlikely to wholly supplant a socio-political one, the adoption of census classifications into biomedical research is an alignment of state bureaucracy and science that could have significant consequences.

Improving the use of race and ethnicity in genetic research: a survey of instructions to authors in genetics journals

The responsibility of journal editors rests with journal editors to draw the attention of authors and reviewers to longstanding concerns over the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of using race and ethnicity in genetic research and to encourage critical reflection and debate and better standards of measurement and reporting.

Reporting Race and Ethnicity in Genetics Research: Do Journal Recommendations or Resources Matter?

It is reiterated that race and ethnicity variables are used inconsistently in genetic research, but also shed light on how journals might improve practices by highlighting the need for scientists to carefully scrutinize the use of these variables in their work.

Race and ethnicity in genetic research

A baseline against which to measure future trends is provided, based on 330 randomly selected articles published between 2001 and 2004 that reported on genetic research and used one or more words from a defined list of race, ethnicity, or population terms.

The use of race variables in genetic studies of complex traits and the goal of reducing health disparities: a transdisciplinary perspective.

The authors argue that the sociopolitical constructs appropriate for monitoring health disparities are not appropriate for use in genetic studies investigating the etiology of complex diseases, and race variables are unacceptable as gross proxies for numerous social/ Environment factors that disproportionately affect minority populations.


How public health has been undermined by the use of race/ethnicity as an analytical variable is demonstrated, both as a cipher for innate genetic differences in susceptibility and response to treatment, and in its use to identify ‘core groups’ at greater risk of becoming infected and infecting others.

The operationalization of race and ethnicity concepts in medical classification systems: issues of validity and utility

The bibliographical database thesauri reveal the pervasiveness of the notion of the biological basis of health differences by race/ethnicity as well as continuing use of antiquated racial terminology in medical classification systems.

Pharmacogenomics and the Challenge of Health Disparities

  • S. Lee
  • Political Science
    Public Health Genomics
  • 2009
It is argued that significant public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of the emerging discourse that tethers racial justice to notions of racial biology and the social and ethical implications for the pendulum shift towards a geneticization of race in drug development.

Social determinants of family health history collection

Great efforts are needed to increase the collection of FHH information; these efforts may need to target men, the elderly, and individuals who have not had a recent medical visit.

personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics: ethical and social challenges.

  • S. Lee
  • Biology, Medicine
    Personalized medicine
  • 2005
Critical to the success of pharmacogenomics and personalized drug therapies are the creation of large databases containing human genotypic and phenotypic information, the adoption of Pharmacogenomic testing as a standard of medical care, and greater regulatory guidance on balancing commercial and public health priorities.



The Human Genome Project

The information derived from the Human Genome Project, an international effort to decode the information embedded in the human genome, will revolutionize the practice of medicine in the 21st century

Race, Ethnicity, and Health: Can Genetics Explain Disparities?

  • Lundy Braun
  • Medicine
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2002
This essay examines how popular and scientific concepts of race and ethnicity converge with dominant understandings of genetics to inform the design and interpretation of research, public health policy, and medical practice.

Toward a New Vocabulary of Human Genetic Variation

Researchers are asked to carefully consider for what purpose they are using race, to define and use the term consistently, and to be aware that race is not a fixed biological entity, but only one way among many to describe human variation.

Microsatellite diversity and the demographic history of modern humans.

Examining differences in diversity at 60 microsatellite loci among human population samples from three major continental groups suggests earlier demographic expansion of the ancestors of Africans.

Iberia: population genetics, anthropology, and linguistics.

It is believed that a genetic and cultural pre-Neolithic flow coming from southern Mediterranean coasts existed toward northern Mediterranean areas, including at least Iberia and some Mediterranean islands, and this model would substitute for the demic diffusion model put forward to explain Neolithic innovations in Western Europe.

Duffy blood types and vivax malaria in Ethiopia.

The data are interpreted as supportive of the Duffy-vivax hypothesis with reference to a part of eastern Africa, and it is suggested thatThe Duffy-negative genotype may represent the original, rather than the mutant, condition in tropial Africa.

Susceptibility to vivax malaria in Ethiopia.

  • J. C. Armstrong
  • Medicine
    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
  • 1978

Races: A Study of the Problems of Race Formation in Man

Races: a study of the problems of race formation in man , Races: a study of the problems of race formation in man , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی