MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Vitamin D and COVID-19.

@article{Bilezikian2020MECHANISMSIE,
  title={MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Vitamin D and COVID-19.},
  author={John P. Bilezikian and Daniel D. Bikle and Martin Hewison and Marise Lazaretti-Castro and Anna Maria Formenti and Aakriti Gupta and Mahesh V. Madhavan and Nandini Nair and Varta Babalyan and Nicholas Hutchings and Nicola Napoli and Domenico Accili and Neil Binkley and Donald W. Landry and Andrea Giustina},
  journal={European journal of endocrinology},
  year={2020}
}
The SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has generated an explosion of interest both in the mechanisms of infection leading to dissemination and expression of this disease, and in potential risk factors that may have a mechanistic basis for disease propagation or control. Vitamin D has emerged as a factor that may be involved in these two areas. The focus of this article is to apply our current understanding of vitamin D as a facilitator of immunocompetence both with regard to… 
Vitamin D and COVID-19: where are we now?
TLDR
Assessment of the current data that associate vitamin D status with the acquisition, evolution, and/or severity of infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and to assess whether prevention through vitamin D supplementation can prevent infection and/ or improve the evolution once acquired is carried out.
The role of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection: An update
Lung-Centric Inflammation of COVID-19: Potential Modulation by Vitamin D
TLDR
The role of SARS-CoV-2 in lung inflammation and associated sequelae are reviewed with an emphasis on immunothrombosis, and as much as vitamin D is touted as a supplement to conventional therapies of CO VID-19, the impact of this vitamin at various junctures of COVID-19 pathogenesis is also addressed.
Clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vitamin D
TLDR
This paper aims to present the rapidly expanding literature to date regarding the clinical relevance of vitamin D in Covid-19 and, consequently, the reasonableness of avoiding its deficiency to keep the immune system able to respond in the best way to this acute viral infection.
Vitamin D: A Role Also in Long COVID-19?
TLDR
There are promising reasons to promote research into the effects of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 patients, but no studies to date have found that vitamin D affects post-CO VID-19 symptoms or biomarkers.
Vitamin D: A Potential Mitigation Tool for the Endemic Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic?
TLDR
The expected transition to endemicity of SARS-CoV-2 even further corroborates as a potential of vitamin D as an potential mitigation tool for the prevention of COVID-19.
Shedding light on vitamin D: the shared mechanistic and pathophysiological role between hypovitaminosis D and COVID-19 risk factors and complications
TLDR
Evidence continuing to grow for the case that low vitamin D status is a risk factor for COVID-19 disease and poor outcomes, there is a need to address the public health efforts set in place to minimize infection which may have inadvertently increased hypovitaminosis D in the general population and those already at risk.
Vitamin D in the COVID 19 prevention and treatment: emerging evidence
TLDR
It is suggested that hypovitaminosis D might be considered “guilty by association” as one of the factors able to worsen the pandemic spread and its clinical impact.
Vitamin D supplementation as an important factor in COVID-19 prevention and treatment: what evidence do we have?
TLDR
The first available data from epidemiological studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with increased susceptibility to the new coronavirus infection as well as with severe course of the disease.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 189 REFERENCES
The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality
TLDR
It is proposed that there is a potential association between mean levels of vitamin D in various countries with cases and mortality caused by COVID-19 and vitamin D levels are severely low in the aging population especially in Spain, Italy and Switzerland.
Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths
TLDR
Evidence supporting the role of vitamin D in reducing risk of COVID-19 includes that the outbreak occurred in winter, a time when 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lowest; that the number of cases in the Southern Hemisphere near the end of summer are low; that vitamin D deficiency has been found to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome; and that case-fatality rates increase with age and with chronic disease comorbidity.
The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients
TLDR
Given that CRP is a surrogate marker for cytokine storm and is associated with Vit D deficiency, based on retrospective data and indirect evidence the authors see a possible role of Vit D in reducing complications attributed to unregulated inflammation and cytokineStorm.
Vitamin D Insufficiency is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19
TLDR
VDI is highly prevalent in severe COVID-19 patients, and it is suggested that prospective, randomized controlled studies of VDI in CO VID-19 Patients are warranted.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Lower in Patients with Positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2
TLDR
In this cohort, significantly lower 25(OH)D levels were found in PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 patients compared with negative patients, suggesting vitamin D supplementation might be a useful measure to reduce the risk of infection.
Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19
TLDR
The extrapulmonary organ-specific pathophysiology, presentations and management considerations for patients with COVID-19 are reviewed to aid clinicians and scientists in recognizing and monitoring the spectrum of manifestations, and in developing research priorities and therapeutic strategies for all organ systems involved.
Diabetes and COVID-19: evidence, current status and unanswered research questions
TLDR
There is a need to further study the natural course of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes and to understand the individual, regional and ethnic variations in disease prevalence and course.
Modulation of the Immune Response to Respiratory Viruses by Vitamin D
TLDR
Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6.
Covid‐19 and diabetes mellitus: unveiling the interaction of two pandemics
TLDR
Targeting the overexpression of Il‐6 effects with a monoclonal antibody against IL‐6 receptor or using Janus Kinase inhibitors may be particularly helpful for treatment of Covid‐19 pneumonia in diabetes.
...
...