author={Catrin Westphal and Riccardo Bommarco and Gabriel Carr{\'e} and Ellen Lamborn and Nicolas Morison and Theodora Petanidou and Simon G. Potts and Stuart P. M. Roberts and Hajnalka Szentgy{\"o}rgyi and Thomas Tscheulin and Bernard E. Vaissi{\`e}re and Michał Woyciechowski and Jacobus C. Biesmeijer and William E. Kunin and Josef Settele and Ingolf Steffan‐Dewenter},
  journal={Ecological Monographs},
Bee pollinators are currently recorded with many different sampling methods. However, the relative performances of these methods have not been systematically evaluated and compared. In response to the strong need to record ongoing shifts in pollinator diversity and abundance, global and regional pollinator initiatives must adopt standardized sampling protocols when developing large-scale and long-term monitoring schemes. We systematically evaluated the performance of six sampling methods… 

Assessing bee species richness in two Mediterranean communities: importance of habitat type and sampling techniques

To assess the total bee species richness in bee diversity hotspots, such as the studied habitats, it is suggested a combination of transect walks conducted by trained bee collectors and pan trap sampling.

Habitat-Dependency of Transect Walk and Pan Trap Methods for Bee Sampling in Farmlands

It is shown that the height of vegetation, the average number of flowers and the amount of woody vegetation had the greatest influence on the sampling efficiency, and sampling by transect walk captured less bees in general, especially in stubble, maize, and cereal fields.

Sampling bees in tropical forests and agroecosystems: a review

There was little consensus regarding which method would be most reliable for sampling multiple species, but if the objective of the study is to estimate abundance or species richness, malaise traps, pan traps and sweep nets are the most effective sampling protocols in open tropical systems.

Evaluation of Common Methods for Sampling Invertebrate Pollinator Assemblages: Net Sampling Out-Perform Pan Traps

Net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages is recommended, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

Monitoring insect pollinators and flower visitation: The effectiveness and feasibility of different survey methods

This compared two common methods for sampling wild pollinating insects, pan traps and transects, in surveys of 1 km countryside squares and flowering crop fields across Great Britain, including the influence of local floral resources on the insects sampled, demonstrating that differences between methods in estimating richness are not due to sampling effort alone.

A synopsis of the Bee occurrence data of northern Tanzania

A dataset of bee species records obtained from a survey in Tanzania i.e. Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Manyara regions serves as baseline data necessary for understanding the diversity and distribution of bees in the northern parts of the country.

Habitat, spatial and temporal drivers of diversity patterns in a wild bee assemblage

It is shown that an intensive agricultural landscape in western France can hold nearly 200 wild bee species at a regional scale, i.e. 20 % of the whole bee fauna known in mainland France, with a substantial number of these being social and gregarious species.

Pollinator Specific Richness and Their Interactions With Local Plant Species: 10 Years of Sampling in Mediterranean Habitats.

The Cistaceae plant family acted as a central node in the plant-pollinator network, interacting with 52 different pollinator species, which shows the importance of large open flowers that could be easily visited by both short and long-tongued pollinators in Mediterranean habitats.

Inventorying and monitoring crop pollinating bees: Evaluating the effectiveness of common sampling methods

Wild bees provide a critical ecosystem service by pollinating globally important crops. Documented bee declines, notably in agricultural landscapes, therefore threaten future food security. Yet,

Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits

A long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species shows that despite marked increases in human population density and large changes in anthropogenic land use, aggregate native species richness declines were modest outside of the genus Bombus.



Variation in Native Bee Faunas and its Implications for Detecting Community Changes

Existing studies suggest that bee faunas are locally diverse, highly variable in space and time, and often rich in rare species, indicating that intense sampling among sites and years will be required to differentiate changes due to specific impacts from the natural dynamics of populations and communities.

Sampling Bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for Pollinator Community Studies: Pitfalls of Pan-trapping

Traditional net collecting at flowers and pan trapping concurrently are compared, sampling the local bee fauna of the dominant desert shrub, creosote bush growing at the Silver bell site of the International Biosphere Program (IBP) of Tucson Arizona.

Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Pollinator Diversity and Plant Reproductive Success in Renosterveld Shrublands of South Africa

It is argued that there needs to be a greater focus on the habitat requirements of pollinators to predict the effects of habitat fragmentation on pol- lination systems and plant reproductive success, and that populations on small fragments do not always experience pollination deficits.


It is concluded that local landscape destruction affects solitary wild bees more than social bees, possibly changing mutualistic plant-pollinator and competitive wild bees- honey bees interactions and that only analyses of multiple spatial scales may detect the importance of the landscape context for local pollinator communities.

Quantifying biodiversity: procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness

A series of common pitfalls in quantifying and comparing taxon richness are surveyed, including category‐subcategory ratios (species-to-genus and species-toindividual ratios) and rarefaction methods, which allow for meaningful standardization and comparison of datasets.

A Comparison of Pan Trap and Intensive Net Sampling Techniques for Documenting a Bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) Fauna

Pan trapping was of limited use in detecting the creosote bush fauna because of numerous species caught by netting but not by pan traps, and the predominant flower color in the plant community did not influence the relative attractiveness of particular pan trap colors, but they did not study the effect of floral abundance per se.


A quantitative analysis revealed that the relative habitat specificity of Hymenoptera decreased with increasing habitat disturbance, and spatial and temporal turnover explained 38.6% and 23.1%, respectively, of partitioned regional species richness.

Monitoring change in the abundance and distribution of insects using butterflies and other indicator groups

  • J. A. Thomas
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2005
It is concluded that butterflies represent adequate indicators of change for many terrestrial insect groups, but recommended that similar schemes be extended to other popular groups, especially dragonflies, bumblebees, hoverflies and ants.


It is concluded that floral resources act in specific and previously unexplored ways to modulate the diversity of the local geographic species pool, with specific disturbance factors, superimposed upon these patterns, mainly affecting the dominant species.

Bioindication using trap‐nesting bees and wasps and their natural enemies: community structure and interactions

Results from four field studies show that communities of trap-nesting bees and wasps and their natural enemies are promising bioindicators for ecological change or habitat quality and species richness was closely correlated with that sampled by sweep nets.