author={Michael A. Messner},
  journal={Gender \& Society},
  pages={71 - 88}
  • M. Messner
  • Published 1 March 1989
  • Sociology
  • Gender & Society
Men's studies' scholars have begun to critically examine and deconstruct the meaning of masculinity, but thus far, most of their studies have focused exclusively on the lives of white, middle-class men, ignoring the implications of racial and social class differences and inequalities among men. Sport sociologists, on the other hand, have examined the causes and consequences of class and recial inequalities in the sports world, but they rarely integrate gender into their analysis—except when… 
This article is based on in-depth interviews with 30 male former athletes of different race and class. I use feminist theories of the social construction of gender to explore the relationship between
Sport and Masculinity: The Promise and Limits of Title IX
This paper uses the lens of masculinities theory to examine the connections between sport and masculinity and considers how law both reinforces and intervenes in sport’s production of masculinity.
This research compares and analyzes the verbal commentary of televised coverage of two women's and men's athletic events: the “final four” of the women's and men's 1989 National Collegiate Athletic
Masculinity Dilemmas: Sexuality and Intimacy Talk among Christians and Goths
  • A. Wilkins
  • Sociology
    Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society
  • 2009
I n this article, I compare seemingly antithetical groups of white middleclass young adult men. The first, members of a university-based evangelical organization I call University Unity, engage in a
Bullying Among Adolescent Football Players: Role of Masculinity and Moral Atmosphere
Identifying practices of masculinity socialization that contribute to the establishment of gender privilege can help address violence and bullying in schools (Connell, 1996). Because the sport of
The importance of sports to American society is evident when watching television or reading popular magazines. Companies hire athletes to endorse their products and services, while masculinity and
Borrowing from Femininity: The Caring Man, Hybrid Masculinities, and Maintaining Male Dominance
Prevalent cultural representations of masculinity depict men as aggressive, emotionally distant individuals whose hard and muscular bodies epitomize these traits. These traditional representations of
Masculinity and Sport Revisted: A Review of Literature on Hegemonic Masculinity and Men's Ice Hockey in Canada
Ice hockey is particularly significant in Canada as it acts as a primary site of socialization for boys and men. This form of socialization raises questions about masculinity on the public agenda in
Female football players, the sport ethic and the masculinity-sport nexus
Sport has traditionally been considered a male arena; however, women's participation continues to grow. One aspect of sport that remains relatively unaffected by women's inclusion is the sport ethic
How Much Difference is too Much Difference? Perceptions of Gay Men and Lesbians in Intercollegiate Athletics
On the surface, intercollegiate athletics provides a notable example of creating community across difference. Although students involved in sports like football, basketball, and track at Division I


The Sport Mystique in Black Culture
This research examines the relationship between race, social structure, and sport orientations. Specifically, the questions addressed are whether blacks and whites differ in their orientations toward
Changing men : new directions in research on men and masculinity
Rethinking 'Masculinity' - Michael S Kimmel New Directions in Research PART ONE: REFORMULATING THE MALE ROLE The Structure of Male Role Norms - Edward Thompson and Joseph Pleck The Embodiment of
Sport and women's empowerment
The Costs of Exclusionary Practices in Women's Studies
As women who came to maturity during the social upheavals of the late sixties and early seventies, we entered academia to continue-in a different arena-the struggles that our foreparents had begun
Power and Authority: Moral Consensus and Conformity in Sport
This study examined the moral rationales of 109 male and female coaches, athletes and non- athletes. Subjects read a series of sport scenarios in which a conflict arose between an athlete and a
The Collegiate Athletic Arms Race: Origins and Implications of the "Rule 48" Controversy
The passage of Rule 48 by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) pro voked the most heated racial debate within the organization since the onset of widespread collegiate sports
Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives
This reference uses a relational concept of gender that critically examines and debunks traditional assumptions about men, women, and sport. Eighteen original articles explore the lives of individual
The Consequences of Failure in Sport
Sports figures are the heroes of both young and old in American society. They represent glamour, great wealth, and the &dquo;anybody can make it&dquo; syndrome. Young people, especially boys but