Development of fertilization-competent oocytes depends on integrated processes controlling meiosis, cytoplasmic development, and maintenance of genomic integrity. We show that meiosis arrest female 1 (MARF1) is required for these processes in mammalian oocytes. Mutations of Marf1 cause female infertility characterized by up-regulation of a cohort of transcripts, increased retrotransposon expression, defective cytoplasmic maturation, and meiotic arrest. Up-regulation of protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit (PPP2CB) is key to the meiotic arrest phenotype. Moreover, Iap and Line1 retrotransposon messenger RNAs are also up-regulated, and, concomitantly, DNA double-strand breaks are elevated in mutant oocytes. Therefore MARF1, by suppressing levels of specific transcripts, is an essential regulator of important oogenic processes leading to female fertility and the development of healthy offspring.