author={David H. Smith and Margaretha Isaacson and K. M. Johnson and A. F. Bagshawe and B. K. Johnson and R. Swanapoel and Mona Killey and T. K. Arap Siongok and W. Koinange Keruga},
  journal={The Lancet},
Abstract The third known outbreak of Marburg-virus disease occurred in Kenya in 1980. The index patient acquired infection in western Kenya, and a doctor in close contact with the patient terminally during a massive haematemesis developed infection in Nairobi. There was no further evidence of nosocomial transmission. Surveillance in western Kenya provided no evidence of Marburg-virus disease but suggested the presence of Ebola haemorrhagic fever. 
Ebola and marburg hemorrhagic fever.
Clinicians in the United States should be aware of the symptoms of these viral infections in humans and know the appropriate procedures for contacting local, state, and national reference laboratories in the event of a suspected case of filoviral hemorrhagic fever.
Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology.
Emerging Infectious Disease (2): Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever
Physicians need to be aware of the potential danger of Marburg hemorrhagic fever, be able to identify the disease, and know how to manage and prevent its transmission.
Ebola virus disease in nonendemic countries
Clinical suspicion for the disease must be heightened for travelers or contacts presenting with compatible clinical syndromes, and strict infection control measures must be promptly implemented to minimize the risk of secondary transmission within healthcare settings or in the community.
Short communication: A cluster of Marburg virus disease involving an infant *
The findings show that mild cases of Marburg haemorrhagic fever have to be expected during an outbreak and point out the difficulty to base patient management decisions on clinical case definitions alone.
Marburg Virus Infection in Egyptian Rousette Bats, South Africa, 2013–20141
Findings indicate endemic MARV circulation in bats in South Africa and should inform policies on MARV disease risk reduction.
The natural history of Ebola virus in Africa.
An overview of the many published investigations of how Ebola virus circulates in its natural environment, focusing on the viral reservoir, susceptible animal species, environmental conditions favoring inter-species transmission, and how the infection is transmitted to humans is presented.
Marburg Virus Disease: A Review Literature
Marburg virus global data including epidemiology, reservoir host, Clinique, diagnostic, transmission and prevention were reviewed and Roussettus aegyptiacus is considered as the natural reservoir of this virus.
Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever Known Cases and Outbreaks of Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever , in Chronological Order
Year(s) Country Apparent or suspected origin Reported number of human cases Reported number (%) of deaths among cases Situation 1967 Germany and Yugoslavia Uganda 31 7 (21) Simultaneous outbreaks
[Marburg hemorrhagic fever].
  • A. Titenko
  • Medicine
    Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, i immunobiologii
  • 1991
The five subtypes of Ebola virus are the only other known members of the filovirus family, and Marburg HF is one of them.


Epidemiological Studies in Uganda Relating to the “Marburg” Agent
Experimental studies implicated contact with tissues of African green or vervet monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops (L.) as common to all primary cases in laboratory workers in Germany and Yugoslavia.
Outbreake of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg.
The first recognised outbreak of Marburg virus disease in Africa, and the first since the original epidemic in West Germany and Yugoslavia in 1967, occurred in South Africa in February 1975. The
Epidemiologic investigation of Marburg virus disease, Southern Africa, 1975.
It is believed that during this outbreak the first Marburg virus infection occurred by vector-borne transmission from an arthropod yet to be identified, and that patients 2 and 3 acquired the disease by exposure to the oropharyngeal secretions of patients 1 and 2, respectively.
Marburg Virus Disease. Clinical Syndrome
The “new” disease observed in Marburg, Frankfurt, and Belgrade was the first to occur in an epidemic outbreak.
The epidemiology of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire 1976.
Investigation of epidemiologic investigations of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Zaire in 1976 found that community members associated the mission hospital with the epidemic and the hospital was closed at the end of September, essentially stopped injection-transmitted disease and the epidemic terminated shortly thereafter.
Enhancement of fluorescent antibody staining of viral antigens in formalin-fixed tissues by trypsin digestion.
Viral antigens were detected in brain tissue that had been taken from patients with herpes simplex encephalitis and stored in paraffin for up to 15 years and cells containing antigen could be precisely identified without loss of histologic detail by restaining the same tissue sections with hematoxylin and eosin.