MAKING PLANET NINE: PEBBLE ACCRETION AT 250–750 AU IN A GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE RING

@article{Kenyon2016MAKINGPN,
  title={MAKING PLANET NINE: PEBBLE ACCRETION AT 250–750 AU IN A GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE RING},
  author={Scott J. Kenyon and Benjamin C. Bromley},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2016},
  volume={825}
}
We investigate the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets within a gravitationally unstable ring of solids orbiting at 250–750 AU around a 1 star. Coagulation calculations demonstrate that a system of a few large oligarchs and a swarm of pebbles generates a super-Earth within 100–200 Myr at 250 AU and within 1–2 Gyr at 750 AU. Systems with more than ten oligarchs fail to yield super-Earths over the age of the solar system. As these systems evolve, destructive collisions produce detectable… 

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