author={Stephen S. Ditchkoff and Robert L. Lochmiller and Ronald E. Masters and Steven R. Hoofer and Ronald A. Van Den Bussche},
Abstract Good‐genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white‐tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter‐harvested deer to characteristics… 
Selection and demography drive range-wide patterns of MHC-DRB variation in mule deer
The results show that both natural selection and historical demography are important drivers in the evolution of the MHC in mule deer and work together to shape functional variation and the Evolution of the adaptive immune response in large, well-connected populations.
Evidence for the ‘Good Genes’ Model: Association of MHC Class II DRB Alleles with Ectoparasitism and Reproductive State in the Neotropical Lesser Bulldog Bat, Noctilio albiventris
It is concluded that the individual immune gene constitution affects ectoparasite susceptibility, and contributes to fitness relevant trade-offs in male N. albiventris as suggested by the ‘good genes’ model.
Variation in positively selected major histocompatibility complex class I loci in rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis)
To characterize MHC diversity of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis), an abundant South American passerine, and provide a framework for subsequent investigations of selective agents acting on MHC in Z. capensis, spatial variation in nucleotide diversity and the number of MHC alleles, proteins, and supertypes per individual suggests that environmental heterogeneity may affect patterns of M HC diversity.
MHC‐mediated sexual selection on birdsong: Generic polymorphism, particular alleles and acoustic signals
It is revealed that individuals that harbour an MHC allele that impairs survival perform songs with broader frequency range, which suggests that certain aspects of the song may bear reliable information concerning the MHC profile of the individuals, which can be used by females to optimize mate choice.
MHC class I diversity predicts non-random mating in Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis)
Findings are the first evidence of MHC-associated mate choice in Chinese alligators, suggesting that females may adopt different mating strategies after assessing the MHC characteristics of potential mates.
Spatial pattern of genetic diversity and selection in the MHC class II DRB of three Neotropical bat species
This study of MHC diversity demonstrated the strength of the environment and contrasting pathogen pressures in shaping DRB diversity in bat species, highlighting the potential role of gut microbiota in shaping immune responses.
Major histocompatibility complex variation and age‐specific endoparasite load in subadult European rabbits
An immunogenetic basis of European rabbit resistance to hepatic coccidiosis is suggested, which can strongly limit survival to maturity in this species.
MHC genotype predicts mate choice in the ring‐necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus
MHC‐based mating preferences in the ring‐necked pheasant do not seem to be mediated by ornaments’ expression and may have evolved mainly to reduce the costs of high heterozygosity at MHC loci for the progeny, such as increased risk of autoimmune diseases or disruption of coadapted gene pools.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex in Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, and Mate Choice
No population differentiation is found, suggesting no locally-good gene effects at MHC, but individuals with higher class I diversity were less likely to be infected when experimentally inoculated with Plasmodium, and song sparrows convey information on MHC class II genotype through chemical (preen oil) or auditory (birdsong) cues.
The immune challenge of mating effort: steroid hormone profile, dark ventral patch and parasite burden in relation to intrasexual competition in male Iberian red deer.
A positive relationship of host parasitation with both testosterone levels and the size of the dark ventral patch is found, but these relationships depended on the intensity of male-male competition in the population, being only found under the high-competition level.


Major histocompatibility complex variation associated with juvenile survival and parasite resistance in a large unmanaged ungulate population (Ovis aries L.)
It is shown in an unmanaged, nonhuman population that allelic variation within the MHC is significantly associated with differences in both juvenile survival and resistance to intestinal nematodes, and that parasites are likely to play a major role in the maintenance of MHC diversity in this population.
Characterization of Mhc-DRB allelic diversity in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) provides insight into Mhc-DRB allelic evolution within Cervidae
A phylogenetic analysis of all published red deer, roe deer, and moose DRB alleles shows a trans-species persistence of DRB lineages among these taxa and provides insight into evolution ofDRB allelic lineages within Cervidae and may aid in assignment of red deer DRBalleles to specific loci.
Mating patterns in seminatural populations of mice influenced by MHC genotype
Reproductive mechanisms, primarily mating preferences, result in 27% fewer MHC-homozygous offspring than expected from random mating, and mating preferences are strong enough to account for most of the MHC genetic diversity found in natural populations of Mus.
Environmental and Genetic Components of Antler Growth in White-Tailed Deer
White-tailed deer collected during 1978–1979 exhibited greater body size, fat levels, and antler size than those collected during 1979, and the relationship between multilocus heterozygosity ( H), age-specific antler characters, and overall antler growth was examined.
Body odour preferences in men and women: do they aim for specific MHC combinations or simply heterozygosity?
  • C. Wedekind, S. Füri
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1997
No significant effect was found when tests were tested for an influence of the MHC on odour preferences after the degree of similarity between T–shirt–wearer and smeller was statistically controlled for, which suggests that in study populations the M HC influences body Odour preferences mainly, if not exclusively, by thedegree of similarity or dissimilarity.
Factors influencing host selection by yellow‐billed oxpeckers at Matobo National Park, Zimbabwe
Summary Oxpecker host selection appears to be governed by an array of factors affecting the efficiency of foraging for ticks, with optimally foraging oxpeckers choosing those hosts that maximize
Heritable variation in a plumage indicator of viability in male great tits Parus major
The results show that females mating with attractive male great tits realize an indirect fitness advantage, and that the viability of male offspring was correlated with the plumage traits of their putative father.
Pattern of nucleotide substitution at major histocompatibility complex class I loci reveals overdominant selection
Examination of the pattern of nucleotide substitution between polymorphic alleles in the region of the antigen recognition site (ARS) indicates that in ARS the rate of nonsynonymous substitution is significantly higher than that of synonymous substitution in both humans and mice, whereas in other regions the reverse is true.
Parasites and mate choice in red jungle fowl.
Captive flocks of red jungle fowl experimentally infected with the intestinal nematode Ascaridia galli were used to test Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis that parasites adversely affect male secondary sex characters and that females prefer unparasitized over parasitized males and that parasites have a disproportionately larger effect on ornamental traits.
Genetic Variability and Antler Development
Body and antler size in Cervidae are important qualities contributing to dominance among males and to their value as trophies and the lack of quantitative data on the inheritance of antler characteristics is a major difficulty in establishing an understanding of the genetic basis of antlers development.