Separate and combined effects of time of day and verbal instruction on knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments.
OBJECTIVES We examined the extent to which peripheral changes affect EMG signal adjustments during repeated sprinting in temperate and hot conditions. DESIGN Randomised, crossover study. METHODS Ten males performed 10×6-s 'all-out' cycling sprints (recovery=30s) in either a temperate (24°C/30%rH) or a hot (35°C/40%rH) environment with concomitant surface EMG recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). In addition, peak-to-peak M-wave amplitudes were obtained for each muscle after each sprint (i.e., 15s into recovery). RESULTS For both the VL and RF muscles RMS decreased across sprint repetitions (P<0.01), while significantly lower values for the VL (P=0.012), but not the RF (P=0.096), occurred in hot vs. temperate conditions. M-wave-normalised RMS for VL muscle decreased across sprint repetitions (P=0.030), with no condition or interaction effects (both P>0.621). M-wave-normalised RMS for the RF muscle was lower in the heat (P<0.034), with no significant sprint or interaction effects (both P>0.240). CONCLUSIONS Controlling for changes in maximal M-wave amplitude of the quadriceps muscles after each bout of a repeated cycling exercise in hot and temperate conditions allows researchers to account for fatigue- and/or heat-induced neural and peripheral adjustments.