This volume contains 13 chapters. The first chapter reviews the current possibilities of biotechnology in general and the other ones are specifically focused on plant biotechnology. Most aspects of plant biotechnology are included like genetic modification of traits, ecological impacts, biosafety aspects and intellectual property rights. Even an example of molecular and genetic analysis of Bt corn for market introduction is included in one of the chapters. Another important chapter is integrating cellular and molecular techniques more directly to plant breeding. A number of major contributions is related to modification of carbohydrates, oil composition and the sesquiterpene biochemical pathway in crop plants. These contributions deliver a substantial insight into the different biochemical pathways involved and in the additional possibilities of genetic modification in order to come to alterations of these compounds. Floriculture is in more and more countries emerging and, therefore, interesting for the plant biotechnological approach. Aspects like modification of flower colour into different directions, of vase life, of flower shape, of flower time and of other traits are discussed. Another contribution deals with the possibilities of transgenic plants for the production of human therapeutics like biologically active molecules (peptides, proteins and enzymes), antibodies as a first step to edible vaccines and of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites. The application of Bt transgenic crop plants, the risk of resistance development and the discussion to circumvent such problems by introduction of resistance management is another major issue. Less attention has been paid to molecular markers, specific problems on genetic transformation, stability of expression, genetics and fate of transgenes in transformants. This work is highly useful and recommended to plant geneticists, plant breeders, students, teachers and even for research managers. The contributors are excellent scientists in their field of research.