Lysozymes in the animal kingdom

@article{Callewaert2010LysozymesIT,
  title={Lysozymes in the animal kingdom},
  author={Lien Callewaert and Chris W. Michiels},
  journal={Journal of Biosciences},
  year={2010},
  volume={35},
  pages={127-160}
}
Lysozymes (EC 3.2.1.17) are hydrolytic enzymes, characterized by their ability to cleave the β-(1,4)-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. In the animal kingdom, three major distinct lysozyme types have been identified — the c-type (chicken or conventional type), the g-type (goose-type) and the i-type (invertebrate type) lysozyme. Examination of the phylogenetic distribution of these lysozymes reveals that c… 
Lysozymes in the Animal Kingdom
TLDR
Lysozymes are an important part of human and animal immune systems and play a key role in the defense of these organisms against bacterial infections and many other functions including immune modulation, immune stimulation, and anticancer action.
Characterization and roles of lysozyme in molluscs.
TLDR
Current knowledge regarding to the genomic structure, tissue distribution of mollusc lysozyme, the antimicrobial function and mechanism, and the evolution of three type lysozymes in molluscs is discussed.
Isolation and characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the nurse shark.
TLDR
The isolation and characterization of lysozyme from unstimulated shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) leukocytes is reported on and amino acid sequence data across the highly conserved active site of the molecule identifying it to be a c-type lyso enzyme is provided.
Invertebrate lysozymes: Diversity and distribution, molecular mechanism and in vivo function
TLDR
This review describes the current knowledge on i-type lysozymes, outlining their distribution, molecular mechanism and in vivo function taking the representative from Venerupis philippinarum (formerly Tapes japonica) (Vp-ilys) as a model.
Three in one: Identification, expression and enzymatic activity of lysozymes in amphioxus.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that three cDNAs that encode g-, c-, and i-type lysozymes, respectively, were identified in a single species of the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, suggesting the presence of all the 3- type ly sozymes in asingle animal species, first such data ever reported.
The g-type lysozyme of Scophthalmus maximus has a broad substrate spectrum and is involved in the immune response against bacterial infection.
TLDR
Results indicate that SmLysG is a functional g-type lysozyme with a wide working range and is involved in innate immune defense against general bacterial infection.
[Lysozyme--occurrence in nature, biological properties and possible applications].
TLDR
By using X-ray diffraction techniques it has been shown that MMT after contact with the serum is delaminated and removed from the serum by adsorption onto bentonite (montmorillonite, MMT), suggesting the role of muramidase in the bactericidal action of serum against Gram-negative bacteria.
Molecular characterization, gene structure and antibacterial activity of a g-type lysozyme from the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.).
TLDR
Results suggest that the identified g-type lysozyme should be involved in the innate immune responses of sea bass.
Identification of a bacterial inhibitor against g-type lysozyme
TLDR
The discovery of a novel Escherichia coli inhibitor specific for goose (g-) type lysozymes, which is designated PliG (periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor of g-type ly sozyme), which shares a structural sequence motif with the previously described PliI and MliC/PliC lyso enzyme inhibitor families, suggesting a common ancestry and mode of action.
The structure of the proteinaceous inhibitor PliI from Aeromonas hydrophila in complex with its target lysozyme.
TLDR
The accumulated structural data on lysozyme-inhibitor complexes from several classes indicate that in all cases an extensive interface of either a single or a double `key-lock' type is formed, resulting in highly efficient inhibition, providing a basis for the rational development of a new class of antibacterial drugs.
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