Nomogram with potential clinical use to predict lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer patients diagnosed incidentally by postoperative pathological assessment
BACKGROUND Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) has been evaluated as a predictor for nodal metastasis or poor survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma. AIMS To evaluate whether LVSI is a prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis and relapse of disease in endometrial adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS & METHODS We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 438 women with endometrial adenocarcinoma treated by surgical staging, including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection, between January 1996 and July 2011. RESULTS One hundred sixty-three women (37.2%) were LVSI-positive and 275 (62.8%) were negative. LVSI-positive women were significantly older and showed more advanced stage, poorer differentiation, and a higher frequency of non-endometrioid histology type, myometrial invasion, and positive peritoneal cytology than LVSI-negative women. Surgeries by laparotomy rather than laparoscopy and more adjuvant therapies were conducted in LVSI-positive women. The median number of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes removed were not different, but LVSI-positive patients showed more lymph node metastases. The LVSI-positive group also showed a higher recurrence of disease and lower survival rates than the LVSI-negative group. Negative predictive values of LVSI for lymph node metastasis and recurrence of disease were 96.4 and 97.1%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, LVSI did not influence overall or disease-free survival after adjusting for several confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS In the cases that the nodal status has not been assessed in endometrial adenocarcinoma, the presence of LVSI may be a reasonable surrogate in addition to other risk factors, in determining the need for adjuvant therapy.