Lymphocytes of the toad Xenopus laevis have the gene set for promoting tadpole development

@article{Wabl1975LymphocytesOT,
  title={Lymphocytes of the toad Xenopus laevis have the gene set for promoting tadpole development},
  author={Matthias R. Wabl and Rudolf B. Brun and Louis Du Pasquier},
  journal={Science},
  year={1975},
  volume={190},
  pages={1310 - 1312}
}
Nuclear transplantation experiments show that differentiated cells, such as lymphocytes, from the adult frog can express the genes necessary for tadpole development. The transplanted cells were proven to be lymphocytes by immunological methods. The origin of the tadpoles that developed after lymphocyte nuclei injections was ascertained by a karyotypic marker. 

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  • M. Diberardino
  • Biology
    Cell differentiation and development : the official journal of the International Society of Developmental Biologists
  • 1988

Gene reactivation in erythrocytes: nuclear transplantation in oocytes and eggs of Rana.

These results demonstrate that nuclei of noncycling and terminally differentiated erythrocytes contain the genes to specify tadpole development, and conditioning these nuclei in the cytoplasm of oocytes leads to a widespread reactivation of dormant genes.

The current status of cloning and nuclear reprograming in amphibian eggs.

The process of cloning on our planet dates back to the initial reproduction of unicellular plant and animal forms and also to the propagation of multicellular forms by budding. Nuclear

Genomic potential of differentiated cells analyzed by nuclear transplantation

Results of nuclear transplantation experiments in amphibian oocytes and eggs suggest that the genetic totipotency of at least some differentiated somatic cell types still remains a tenable hypothesis.

B‐cell development in the amphibian Xenopus

The amphibian Xenopus and mammals have similar organization and usage of their immunoglobulin gene loci with combinatorial joining of V, D and J elements, but adult immune responses differ in heterogeneity and somatic mutants are generated at the same rate as in other vertebrates but are not optimally selected.

Origin and progress of nuclear transfer in nonmammalian animals.

Classic studies in cytology, embryology, or genetics spanning more than five centuries that led to nuclear transfers in unicellular animals and to those in oocytes of insects, fish and amphibians are reviewed.

Nuclear transplantation in Bombina orientalis and utilization of the Pale mutation as a nuclear marker.

The first successful transplantation of embryonic nuclei into enucleated eggs of this organism is reported, demonstrating that nuclear transplantation in B. orientalis provides embryos whose nuclei may be reliably interpreted as being derived from the injected nucleus.

Transplantation of nuclei from lymphocytes of adult frogs into enucleated eggs: special focus on technical parameters.

The technique of transplantation of nuclei from adult lymphocytes into enucleated eggs from Xenopus laevis (South African clawed toad) shows that differentiated cells from adults, such as lymphocytes, can re-express the genes necessary for ontogeny.
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