In vitro migration of cytotoxic T lymphocyte derived from a colon carcinoma patient is dependent on CCL2 and CCR2
Chronic inflammatory reactions are usually characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in the extravascular connective tissue. In such sites, inappropriate activation of circulating or resident lymphocytes becomes self-perpetuating and can lead to chronic tissue destruction. In addition to that, the locally infiltrated lymphocytes should have an opportunity to interact directly with fibroblasts composing the connective tissue. The direct interactions of those different cell types seem to play important roles in lymphocyte lodging and retention in such sites. Thus, for clarification of the immunopathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis, it is important that the molecular mechanisms involved in the heterotypic cell-cell interactions be revealed. In fact, it has been demonstrated that lymphocytes interact with various non-hematopoietic cells, such as epithelial cells and endothelial cells. Regarding interactions with fibroblasts, it has been shown that IFN gamma-stimulated fibroblasts can regulate the proliferative responses of T-lymphocytes both positively and negatively. Furthermore, activated lymphocytes have demonstrated strong binding ability to various fibroblast cell lines. Blocking experiments utilizing monoclonal antibodies specific to various cell adhesion molecules revealed that very late antigen (VLA) integrins, lymphocyte-function-associated antigen (LFA-1)/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-I), CD44/hyarulonate are, at least in part, involved in lymphocyte-fibroblast interactions. In addition, recent findings raised the possibility that the adhesive interactions between lymphocytes and fibroblasts influenced the various cellular functions of each cell type. In fact, it was recently demonstrated that the adhesive interactions stimulated fibroblasts to increase expression of inflammatory cytokine mRNA. These results strongly suggest that fibroblasts are not merely innocent bystanders but actively participate in local inflammatory reactions by directly interacting with locally infiltrated lymphocytes.