Lymphocyte development in fish and amphibians

  title={Lymphocyte development in fish and amphibians},
  author={John D. Hansen and Agust{\'i}n G Zapata},
  journal={Immunological Reviews},
Summary: Recently, molecular markers such as recombination activating genes (RAG), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), stem cell leukemia hematopoletic transcription factor (SCL), Ikaros and gata‐binding protein (Gata) ‐family members have been isolated and characterized from key lower vertebrates, adding to our growing knowledge of lymphopolesis in ectotherms. In all gnathostomes there appear to be two main embryonic locations derived from the early mesoderm, both intra‐ and… 

Regulation of the stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene: A tale of two fishes

The results demonstrate the power of combining the compact genome of the pufferfish with the advantages that zebrafish provide for studies of gene regulation during development, and provide a powerful tool for the manipulation of hemopoiesis and vasculogenesis in vivo.

Non-cell autonomous requirement for the bloodless gene in primitive hematopoiesis of zebrafish.

Observations demonstrate that the zebrafish bloodless (bls) gene product is uniquely required in a non-cell autonomous manner for primitive hematopoiesis, potentially acting via regulation of scl.

Early hematopoiesis and developing lymphoid organs in the zebrafish

The initial appearance of various blood lineages and the nature of accumulating hematopoietic tissue in the thymus and kidney, the main lymphoid organs of adult teleosts, in zebrafish is described.

Sequencing and expression of the CD3 γ/δ mRNA in Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibian)

Cl cloning and sequencing of a CD3 cDNA from the salamander Pleurodeles waltl, highly homologous to the Xenopus and chicken CD3 γ/δ cDNAs are reported, finding the highest CD3δ mRNA expression in the thymus and confirming the tissue and lymphoid specificities of this mRNA.

Transcriptional accessibility for genes of multiple tissues and hematopoietic lineages is hierarchically controlled during early hematopoiesis.

The hypothesis that stem cells possess a wide-open chromatin structure to maintain their multipotentiality, which is progressively quenched as they go down a particular pathway of differentiation, is supported.

A prominent role for invariant T cells in the amphibian Xenopus laevis tadpoles

An important and perhaps even dominant role of multiple nonclassical MHC class I-restricted iT cell populations in tadpoles and, by extension, other aquatic vertebrates with rapid external development that are under pressure to produce a functional lymphocyte repertoire with small numbers of cells is suggested.

Characterization of a Xenopus laevis CXC chemokine receptor 4: implications for hemato‐poietic cell development in the vertebrate embryo

Xenopus CXCR4 mRNA expression was up‐regulated during early neurula stages and remained high during early organogenesis, suggesting that SDF‐1 and CX CR4 are involved in regulating the migratory behavior of hematopoietic stem cells colonizing the larval or fetal liver.

Transcription Factor for Adaptive Immunity : Emergence of an Essential Oikopleura dioica and the Urochordate Myxine glutinosa Ikaros Family Members from the Agnathan

Results indicate that the properties associated with the Ikaros family preceded the emergence of the jawed vertebrates and thus adaptive immunity.

Rag1 and Rag2 Gene Expressions Identify Lymphopoietic Tissues in Larvae of Rice-Field Eel (Monopterus albus)

It is verified that the thymus is the primary lymphopoietic tissue and suggested that, in rice-field eel, lymphocyte differentiation also occurs in the liver and kidney.



Intraembryonic origin of hepatic hematopoiesis in Xenopus laevis.

It is shown that hepatic erythrocytes, leukocytes, and B lymphocytes in the liver of Xenopus larvae were derived from stem cells that originated from the intraembryonic mesoderm, a major site of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation during vertebrate development.

Development of T-cells during fish embryogenesis.

Cloche, an early acting zebrafish gene, is required by both the endothelial and hematopoietic lineages.

Results show that cloche is involved in the genesis and early diversification of the endothelial and blood lineages, possibly by affecting a common progenitor cell population.

Ontogeny of hematopoietic cells in Rana pipiens: precursor cell migration during embryogenesis.

Developmental biology of hematopoiesis.

  • T. Evans
  • Biology
    Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • 1997

Intraembryonic hematopoietic cell migration during vertebrate development.

  • H. DetrichM. Kieran L. Zon
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1995
Findings support a hypothesis in which the hematopoietic program of vertebrates is established by variations in homologous migration pathways of extra- and intraembryonic progenitors.

Conservation of a master hematopoietic switch gene during vertebrate evolution: Isolation and characterization of Ikaros from teleost and amphibian species

Overall, Ikaros is expressed in a lymphoid‐specific fashion similar to that found in mice and humans, which confirms it as a master switch of hematopoiesis.

The recombination activation gene 1 (RAG1) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): cloning, expression, and phylogenetic analysis.

Data from cloned RAG1 from trout forms the basis for a proposal that the thymus of teleost species plays an essential developmental role in lymphopoiesis and thus can be regarded as a primary lymphoid organ.

Expression of zebrafish rag genes during early development identifies the thymus.

To follow development of the immune system in zebrafish, the expression of the recombination activating genes, rag1 and rag2, which have been previously isolated and characterized are analyzed to follow the development of organs containing these cells.