Dietary luteolin attenuates chronic liver injury induced by mercuric chloride via the Nrf2/NF-κB/P53 signaling pathway in rats
Cancer is a multistep process that typically occurrs over an extended period of time, beginning with initiation followed by promotion and progression. Colon cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For a variety of reasons, patients prefer naturally occurring dietary substances over synthetic agents to prevent cancer. Luteolin, a bioflavonoid, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects. We analyzed the in vitro anticancer and apoptosis-inducing property of luteolin using HCT-15 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue assay at different concentrations. Luteolin at a concentration of 100 µM (IC50) decreased the expressions of non-P-β-catenin, phosphorylated (inactive) glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and cyclin D1 expressions in HCT-15 cells, which were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Luteolin also promoted substantial cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in HCT-15 cells, and it induces apoptosis in HCT-15 cells, as revealed by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that luteolin treatment enhanced the expression of Bax and caspase-3, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was suppressed. Together, the results of this study revealed that luteolin can act as a potent inhibitor of HCT-15 proliferation and can be used as an agent against colon cancer.