Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Potential Roles in Disease Prevention

  title={Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Potential Roles in Disease Prevention},
  author={Judy D. Ribaya-Mercado and Jeffrey B Blumberg},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Nutrition},
  pages={567S - 587S}
Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids found particularly in dark-green leafy vegetables and in egg yolks. They are widely distributed in tissues and are the principal carotenoids in the eye lens and macular region of the retina. Epidemiologic studies indicating an inverse relationship between xanthophyll intake or status and both cataract and age-related macular degeneration suggest these compounds can play a protective role in the eye. Some observational studies have also shown… 
Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Roles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration—Neurodegenerative Disease
Lutein and zeaxanthin belong to the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are pigments produced by plants. Structurally, they are very similar, differing only slightly in the arrangement of atoms.
Lutein and zeaxanthin
Chapter 10 Lutein and the Aging Eye
The basic chemistry of lutein is discussed; its uptake, transport, distribution, and functions in the normal eye; and the effects of lutenin in age-related eye diseases will be summarized.
The Pharmacological Effects of Lutein and Zeaxanthin on Visual Disorders and Cognition Diseases
There are increasing evidences that L and Z may also improve normal ocular function by enhancing contrast sensitivity and by reducing glare disability, and the appropriate consumption quantities, the consumption safety of L, side effects and future research directions are discussed.
Biochemical and Immunological implications of Lutein and Zeaxanthin
With their potent antioxidant activities, these carotenoids are emerging as molecules of vital importance in chronic degenerative, malignancies and antiviral diseases, and more research needs to be done to further expand the applications of lutein and zeaxanthin.
Zeaxanthin: Metabolism, Properties, and Antioxidant Protection of Eyes, Heart, Liver, and Skin
The purpose of this review is to discuss the metabolism of zeaxanthin, including digestion, absorption, transport, and uptake by tissues, as well as the dietary or other factors which affect zexanthin bioavailability.
Can Xanthophyll-Membrane Interactions Explain Their Selective Presence in the Retina and Brain?
It is hypothesized that the high membrane solubility and preferential transmembrane orientation of macular xanthophylls distinguish them from other dietary carotenoids, enhance their chemical and physical stability in retina and brain membranes and maximize their protective action in these organs.
Lutein: A Comprehensive Review on its Chemical, Biological Activities and Therapeutic Potentials
Lutein is found in high quantity in some foods especially in egg yolk and corn as well as in some coloured fruits and vegetables including kiwi, grapes, spinach, orange juice and zucchini.1 Lutein
Toxicity Profile of Lutein and Lutein Ester Isolated From Marigold Flowers (Tagetes erecta)
Assessment of the short-term and long-term toxicity profile of lutein and its esterified form isolated from marigold flowers in young adult male and female Wistar rats supported the nontoxicity of lUTEin andIts ester form.


Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye.
Although increasing the intake of lutein or zeaxanthin might prove to be protective against the development of age-related macular degeneration, a causative relationship has yet to be experimentally demonstrated.
Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans.
It remains to be demonstrated whether lutein or zeaxanthin dietary supplements reduce the incidence of AMD.
Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects.
The hypothesis that low concentrations of macular pigment may be associated with an increased risk of AMD is supported.
Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.
Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men, suggesting sex differences in luteIn metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.
Lutein, lycopene, and their oxidative metabolites in chemoprevention of cancer
A possible antioxidant mechanism of action for lutein and lycopene that leads to formation of the oxidation products of these promising chemopreventive agents is proposed.
Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin decreases ultraviolet B-induced epidermal hyperproliferation and acute inflammation in hairless mice.
Oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin diminishes the effects of ultraviolet B irradiation by reducing acute inflammatory responses and ultraviolet-induced hyperproliferative rebound.
Macular pigments lutein and zeaxanthin as blue light filters studied in liposomes.
The blue light filter efficacy of carotenoids was investigated in unilamellar liposomes loaded in the hydrophilic core space with a fluorescent dye, Lucifer yellow, excitable by blue light, indicating a filter effect.
Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk.
Egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and the benefit of introducing these carotenoids into the diet with egg yolks is counterbalanced by potential LDL-cholesterol elevation from the added dietary cholesterol.
Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye.
This report lends further support for the critical role of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other ocular carotenoids in protecting the eye from light-induced oxidative damage and aging.
Density of the Human Crystalline Lens is Related to the Macular Pigment Carotenoids, Lutein and Zeaxanthin
An inverse relationship between these two variables suggests that lutein and zeaxanthin, or other dietary factors with which they are correlated, may retard age-related increases in lens density.