Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Potential Roles in Disease Prevention

@article{RibayaMercado2004LuteinAZ,
  title={Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Potential Roles in Disease Prevention},
  author={Judy D. Ribaya-Mercado and Jeffrey B Blumberg},
  journal={Journal of the American College of Nutrition},
  year={2004},
  volume={23},
  pages={567S - 587S}
}
Lutein and zeaxanthin are xanthophyll carotenoids found particularly in dark-green leafy vegetables and in egg yolks. They are widely distributed in tissues and are the principal carotenoids in the eye lens and macular region of the retina. Epidemiologic studies indicating an inverse relationship between xanthophyll intake or status and both cataract and age-related macular degeneration suggest these compounds can play a protective role in the eye. Some observational studies have also shown… 
Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Their Roles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration—Neurodegenerative Disease
Lutein and zeaxanthin belong to the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, which are pigments produced by plants. Structurally, they are very similar, differing only slightly in the arrangement of atoms.
Lutein and zeaxanthin
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Toxicity Profile of Lutein and Lutein Ester Isolated From Marigold Flowers (Tagetes erecta)
TLDR
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References

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Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye.
TLDR
Although increasing the intake of lutein or zeaxanthin might prove to be protective against the development of age-related macular degeneration, a causative relationship has yet to be experimentally demonstrated.
Lutein and zeaxanthin dietary supplements raise macular pigment density and serum concentrations of these carotenoids in humans.
TLDR
It remains to be demonstrated whether lutein or zeaxanthin dietary supplements reduce the incidence of AMD.
Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects.
TLDR
The hypothesis that low concentrations of macular pigment may be associated with an increased risk of AMD is supported.
Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.
TLDR
Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men, suggesting sex differences in luteIn metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.
Lutein, lycopene, and their oxidative metabolites in chemoprevention of cancer
TLDR
A possible antioxidant mechanism of action for lutein and lycopene that leads to formation of the oxidation products of these promising chemopreventive agents is proposed.
Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin decreases ultraviolet B-induced epidermal hyperproliferation and acute inflammation in hairless mice.
TLDR
Oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin diminishes the effects of ultraviolet B irradiation by reducing acute inflammatory responses and ultraviolet-induced hyperproliferative rebound.
Macular pigments lutein and zeaxanthin as blue light filters studied in liposomes.
TLDR
The blue light filter efficacy of carotenoids was investigated in unilamellar liposomes loaded in the hydrophilic core space with a fluorescent dye, Lucifer yellow, excitable by blue light, indicating a filter effect.
Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk.
TLDR
Egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and the benefit of introducing these carotenoids into the diet with egg yolks is counterbalanced by potential LDL-cholesterol elevation from the added dietary cholesterol.
Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye.
TLDR
This report lends further support for the critical role of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other ocular carotenoids in protecting the eye from light-induced oxidative damage and aging.
Density of the Human Crystalline Lens is Related to the Macular Pigment Carotenoids, Lutein and Zeaxanthin
TLDR
An inverse relationship between these two variables suggests that lutein and zeaxanthin, or other dietary factors with which they are correlated, may retard age-related increases in lens density.
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