Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment.

  title={Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment.},
  author={John T. Landrum and Richard A Bone},
  journal={Archives of biochemistry and biophysics},
  volume={385 1},
The predominant carotenoids of the macular pigment are lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. The regular distribution pattern of these carotenoids within the human macula indicates that their deposition is actively controlled in this tissue. The chemical, structural, and optical characteristics of these carotenoids are described. Evidence for the presence of minor carotenoids in the retina is cited. Studies of the dietary intake and serum levels of the xanthophylls are discussed. Increased… 

Macular carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin.

  • W. Stahl
  • Chemistry
    Developments in ophthalmology
  • 2005
Empirical studies provide some evidence that an increased consumption of lutein and zeaxanthin with the diet is associated with a lowered risk for age-related macular degeneration, a disease with increasing incidence in the elderly.

Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye.

Although increasing the intake of lutein or zeaxanthin might prove to be protective against the development of age-related macular degeneration, a causative relationship has yet to be experimentally demonstrated.

Lutein and zeaxanthin. Monograph.

  • Medicine
    Alternative medicine review : a journal of clinical therapeutic
  • 2005
In addition to playing pivotal roles in ocular health, lutein and zeaxanthin are important nutrients for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and lung cancer and may also be protective in skin conditions attributed to excessive ultraviolet (UV) light exposure.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin and Eye Disease

The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are oxygenated carotenoids that preferentially accumulate in the macular region of the retina. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin (a conversion product of

The macular carotenoids: A biochemical overview.

Macular pigments lutein and zeaxanthin as blue light filters studied in liposomes.

The blue light filter efficacy of carotenoids was investigated in unilamellar liposomes loaded in the hydrophilic core space with a fluorescent dye, Lucifer yellow, excitable by blue light, indicating a filter effect.

Why Is Zeaxanthin the Most Concentrated Xanthophyll in the Central Fovea?

How the differences in the specific properties of lutein and zeaxanthin could help explain the preferential accumulation of zeAXanthin in the most vulnerable region of the macula is discussed.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin: Health-Friendly Nutrients

A higher dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin has shown to reduce the risk of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration, and carotenoids may prevent cellular damage in these conditions by quenching singlet oxygen or neutralizing photosensitizers.



Lutein and zeaxanthin are associated with photoreceptors in the human retina.

Most of the carotenoids in the human peripheral retina are present in the ROS, associated with soluble or salt-dependently bound proteins.

Distribution of lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in the human retina.

It is proposed that lutein and zeaxanthin are transported into an individual's retina in the same proportions found in his or her blood serum, by a mechanism which is less developed in infants than adults.

Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas.

The proposed oxidative-reductive pathways for lutein and zeaxanthin in human retina, may therefore play an important role in prevention of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.

Retinal tubulin binds macular carotenoids.

The binding interaction of carotenoids and tubulin in the Henle's fiber layer could play an important role in the photoprotective effects of the macular carotanoids against the progression of age-related macular degeneration.

Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density.

Significant negative correlations were found between adipose tissue lutein concentrations and MP for women, but a significant positive relation was found for men, suggesting sex differences in luteIn metabolism may be an important factor in tissue interactions and in determining MP density.

Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.

The method presented in this study will facilitate quantitative investigations of the association between carotenoid levels and health and disease of the retina, and some older individuals show very high whole retinaCarotenoids have been proposed to be potent antioxidants, protecting membrane lipids from toxic peroxidation reactions.

Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet and appears to be feasible for many persons.

Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in plasma after dietary supplementation with egg yolk.

Egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and the benefit of introducing these carotenoids into the diet with egg yolks is counterbalanced by potential LDL-cholesterol elevation from the added dietary cholesterol.

Antioxidant functions of carotenoids.

  • N. Krinsky
  • Biology
    Free radical biology & medicine
  • 1989