Lunglessness in Plethodontid Salamanders is Consistent with the Hypothesis of a Mountain Stream Origin: A Response to Ruben and Boucot

@article{Beachy1992LunglessnessIP,
  title={Lunglessness in Plethodontid Salamanders is Consistent with the Hypothesis of a Mountain Stream Origin: A Response to Ruben and Boucot},
  author={Christopher K. Beachy and Richard C. Bruce},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1992},
  volume={139},
  pages={839 - 847}
}
The salamander family Plethodontidae is characterized by the absence of lungs. In 1920, I. W. Wilder and E. R. Dunn proposed that lunglessness evolved as an adaptation for life in flowing streams. However, J. A. Ruben and A. J. Boucot recently suggested that protoplethodontids had no access to the mountainous terrain associated with fast-flowing stream habitats. They further suggested that plethodontids lost lungs for reasons other than ballast. We cite evidence contradicting Ruben and Boucot's… 
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TLDR
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