Differences in physical activity domains, guideline adherence, and weight history between metabolically healthy and metabolically abnormal obese adults: a cross-sectional study
Objective:To explore the associations between serum concentrations of vitamin D (25(OH)D) and all-cause mortality among US adults defined by lung function (LF) status, particularly among adults with obstructive LF (OLF).Methods:Data from 10 795 adults aged 20–79 years (685 with restrictive LF (RLF) and 1309 with OLF) who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994), had a spirometric examination, and were followed through 2006 were included.Results:During 14.2 years of follow-up, 1792 participants died. Mean adjusted concentrations of 25(OH)D were 75.0 nmol/l (s.e. 0.7) for adults with normal LF (NLF), 70.4 nmol/l (s.e. 1.8) for adults with RLF, 75.5 nmol/l (s.e. 1.5) for adults with mild obstruction and 71.0 nmol/l (s.e. 1.9) among adults with moderate or worse obstruction (P=0.030). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, clinical variables and prevalent chronic conditions, a concentration of <25 nmol/l compared with ⩾75 nmol//l was associated with mortality only among adults with NLF (hazard ratio (HR) 1.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 3.00). Among participants with OLF, adjusted HRs were 0.65 (95% CI 0.29, 1.48), 1.21 (95% CI 0.89, 1.66) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.78, 1.19) among those with concentrations <25, 25–<50 and 50–<75 nmol/l, respectively.Conclusions:Baseline concentrations of 25(OH)D did not significantly predict mortality among US adults with impaired LF.