Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge.

@article{Murphy2013LunarLR,
  title={Lunar laser ranging: the millimeter challenge.},
  author={T. W. Murphy},
  journal={Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society},
  year={2013},
  volume={76 7},
  pages={
          076901
        }
}
  • T. Murphy
  • Published 2013
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society
Lunar laser ranging has provided many of the best tests of gravitation since the first Apollo astronauts landed on the Moon. The march to higher precision continues to this day, now entering the millimeter regime, and promising continued improvement in scientific results. This review introduces key aspects of the technique, details the motivations, observables, and results for a variety of science objectives, summarizes the current state of the art, highlights new developments in the field… Expand
Recent Progress in Lunar Laser Ranging at Grasse Laser Ranging Station
Based on a fully passive space segment, the lunar laser ranging experiment is the last of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package to operate. Observations from the Grasse lunar laser rangingExpand
Timing calibration of the APOLLO experiment
The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) began millimeter-precision ranging to the Moon in 2006. Until now, a comprehensive validation of APOLLO system range accuracy hasExpand
1 Timing Calibration of the APOLLO Experiment
The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) began millimeterprecision ranging to the moon in 2006. Until now, a comprehensive validation of APOLLO system range accuracy hasExpand
Lunar laser ranging in infrared at the Grasse laser station
For many years, lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations using a green wavelength have suffered an inhomogeneity problem both temporally and spatially. This paper reports on the implementation of a newExpand
Lunar laser ranging utilizing a highly efficient solid-state detector in the near-IR
Ranging to the moon in the optical domain sets high demands on the tracking station. Apart from precise pointing and tracking with error tolerances of less than 1 second of arc, it also requires theExpand
Next-generation hollow retroreflectors for lunar laser ranging.
TLDR
Results are presented of a feasibility study of bonded Pyrex and fused silica hollow retroreflectors using both epoxy and HCB methods, including the results of thermally cycling the hollow retro reflectors from 295 to 185 K, and the potential for using these retroreflector arrays for future LLR. Expand
Satellite Laser-Ranging as a Probe of Fundamental Physics
TLDR
A confirmation to approximately one part in a billion of the fundamental weak equivalence principle (“uniqueness of free fall”) in the Earth’s gravitational field is presented with three laser-ranged satellites, at previously unt tested range and with previously untested materials. Expand
Testing the gravitational interaction in the field of the Earth via satellite laser ranging and the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE)
In this work, the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) is presented. This is a research program that aims to perform new refined tests and measurements of gravitation in the field of the EarthExpand
Laser enhancements for Lunar Laser Ranging at 532 nm
This article exposes how we improved (by more than a factor of four) the green Lunar Laser Ranging instrumental sensitivity of the French telemetric station of the “Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur” inExpand
Lunar Laser Ranging: a tool for general relativity, lunar geophysics and Earth science
Only a few sites on Earth are technically equipped to carry out Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to retroreflector arrays on the surface of the Moon. Despite the weak signal, they have successfully providedExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 132 REFERENCES
A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century
Abstract To date, lunar laser ranging to the Apollo retroreflector arrays, which are still operational after four decades, has produced some of the best tests of General Relativity. Since the groundExpand
APOLLO: millimeter lunar laser ranging
Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for decades stood at the forefront of tests of gravitational physics, including tests of the equivalence principle (EP). Current LLR results on the EP achieve aExpand
Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging
  • S. Merkowitz
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Living reviews in relativity
  • 2010
TLDR
The gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging is reviewed and prospects for the future are discussed. Expand
Lunar Ranging, Gravitomagnetism, and APOLLO
The technique of lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for many decades contributed to cutting-edge tests of the fundamental nature of gravity. These include the best tests to date of the strong equivalenceExpand
Lunar Laser Ranging: A Continuing Legacy of the Apollo Program
TLDR
Laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Expand
The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation: Instrument Description and First Detections
A next-generation lunar laser-ranging apparatus using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory in southern New Mexico has begun science operation. The Apache Point Observatory LunarExpand
A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century
Abstract Over the past 40 years, the Lunar Laser Ranging Program (LLRP) to the Apollo Cube Corner (CCR) Retroreflector Arrays (ALLRRA) [1] has supplied almost all of the significant tests of GeneralExpand
LUNAR LASER RANGING TESTS OF THE EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE WITH THE EARTH AND MOON
A primary objective of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) experiment is to provide precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, timeExpand
Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle
The lunar laser ranging (LLR) experiment provides precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, time series of highly accurateExpand
The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment
TLDR
The data obtained so far by the McDonald Observatory have been used to generate a new lunar ephemeris based on direct numerical integration of the equations of motion for the moon and planets, which gives improved reference points for use in lunar mapping, and new information on the lunar mass distribution has been obtained. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...