Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy

@article{Williams2006LunarLR,
  title={Lunar Laser Ranging Science: Gravitational Physics and Lunar Interior and Geodesy},
  author={James G. Williams and Slava G. Turyshev and Dale H. Boggs and James Todd Ratcliff},
  journal={Advances in Space Research},
  year={2006},
  volume={37},
  pages={67-71}
}
Lunar Laser Ranging: a tool for general relativity, lunar geophysics and Earth science
Only a few sites on Earth are technically equipped to carry out Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to retroreflector arrays on the surface of the Moon. Despite the weak signal, they have successfully provided
Tests of Gravity Using Lunar Laser Ranging
  • S. Merkowitz
  • Physics, Geology
    Living reviews in relativity
  • 2010
TLDR
The gravitational science and technology of lunar laser ranging is reviewed and prospects for the future are discussed.
Potential Capabilities of Lunar Laser Ranging for Geodesy and Relativity
Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), which has been carried out for more than 35 years, is used to determine many parameters within the Earth-Moon system. This includes coordinates of terrestrial ranging
LUNAR LASER RANGING TESTS OF THE EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE WITH THE EARTH AND MOON
A primary objective of the lunar laser ranging (LLR) experiment is to provide precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, time
Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle
The lunar laser ranging (LLR) experiment provides precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, time series of highly accurate
LUNAR LASER RANGING EXPERIMENT-A JOURNEY TO THE MOON AND BACK
The Moon has played an important role throughout the development of human civilization. It is the only permanent natural satellite of Earth and the closest astronomical object in the universe.
Fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology with the MAGIA lunar orbiter
MAGIA is a mission approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Phase A study. Using a single large-diameter laser retroreflector, a large laser retroreflector array and an atomic clock onboard
Lunar Science and Lunar Laser Ranging A white paper submitted to the Panel on Inner Planets – Mercury, Venus, and the Moon of The National Academies Planetary Science Decadal Survey
Lunar Laser Ranging studies the Moon’s internal structure and properties by tracking the variations in the orientation and tidal distortion of the Moon as a function of time. Future missions to the
SPACE-BASED TESTS OF GRAVITY WITH LASER RANGING
Existing capabilities of laser ranging, optical interferometry, and metrology, in combination with precision frequency standards, atom-based quantum sensors, and drag-free technologies, are critical
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES
Lunar Laser Ranging: A Continuing Legacy of the Apollo Program
TLDR
Laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy.
Initial measurements of the lunar induced magnetic dipole moment using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data
Twenty‐one orbits of Lunar Prospector magnetometer data obtained during an extended passage of the Moon through a lobe of the geomagnetic tail in April 1998 are applied to estimate the residual lunar
Improved gravity field of the moon from lunar prospector
An improved gravity model from Doppler tracking of the Lunar Prospector (LP) spacecraft reveals three new large mass concentrations (mascons) on the nearside of the moon beneath the impact basins
Lunar Moments, Tides, Orientation, and Coordinate Frames
Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO)
Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is the only means available for testing Einstein’s Strong Equivalence Principle, on which general relativity rests. LLR also provides the strongest limits to date on
Recent Gravity Models as a Result of the Lunar Prospector Mission
The lunar gravity field is determined from the tracking data of previous missions to the Moon with the 1998–1999 Lunar Prospector (LP) mission being the major contributor. LP provided the first
Lunar dynamics and selenodesy: Results from analysis of VLBI and laser data
Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of lunar radio transmitters have been combined with data from laser ranging to lunar retroreflectors to estimate simultaneously (i) parameters in
Lunar rotational dissipation in solid body and molten core
Analyses of Lunar Laser ranges show a displacement in direction of the Moon's pole of rotation which indicates that strong dissipation is acting on the rotation. Two possible sources of dissipation
A test of general relativity using radio links with the Cassini spacecraft
TLDR
A measurement of the frequency shift of radio photons to and from the Cassini spacecraft as they passed near the Sun agrees with the predictions of standard general relativity with a sensitivity that approaches the level at which, theoretically, deviations are expected in some cosmological models.
Progress in lunar laser ranging tests of relativistic gravity.
TLDR
Analyses of laser ranges to the Moon provide increasingly stringent limits on any violation of the equivalence principle (EP); they also enable several very accurate tests of relativistic gravity, including the search for a time variation in the gravitational constant.
...
1
2
3
4
...