Lumbar spondylolysis: a review

@article{Leone2010LumbarSA,
  title={Lumbar spondylolysis: a review},
  author={Antonio Leone and Alessandro Cianfoni and Alfonso Cerase and Nicola Magarelli and Lorenzo Bonomo},
  journal={Skeletal Radiology},
  year={2010},
  volume={40},
  pages={683-700}
}
Spondylolysis is an osseous defect of the pars interarticularis, thought to be a developmental or acquired stress fracture secondary to chronic low-grade trauma. It is encountered most frequently in adolescents, most commonly involving the lower lumbar spine, with particularly high prevalence among athletes involved in certain sports or activities. Spondylolysis can be asymptomatic or can be a cause of spine instability, back pain, and radiculopathy. The biomechanics and pathophysiology of… 
Spondylolysis 2019 update
TLDR
A thorough history and physical examination are essential and radiographs of the lumbar spine, anterior posterior and lateral views, MRI and, selectively, computed tomography are useful adjuncts to uncover a pars injury.
Stress Fractures of the Lumbar Spine
Spondylolysis is a condition involving the pars interarticularis (pars), located in the posterior elements of lumbar vertebrae. It is highly prevalent in adolescents and should be suspected any time
Neural Arch Bone Marrow Edema and Spondylolysis in Adolescent Cheerleaders: A Case Series.
TLDR
Primary spine providers could consider this diagnosis in any adolescent, especially an athlete, who has persistent low back pain, and the presence of BME precedes spondylolysis.
CT outperforms radiographs at a comparable radiation dose in the assessment for spondylolysis
TLDR
By limiting the z-axis coverage to the relevant anatomy and optimizing the CT protocol, this work is able to provide a definitive diagnosis of fractures of the pars interarticularis at comparable or lower radiation dose than commonly performed lumbar spine radiographs.
Management of Occult Spondylolisthesis in a Case of Low Back Pain
TLDR
A 45-year-old female who was presented with the complaints of low back pain with sciatica for 4 years was diagnosed with occult spondylolisthesis and after constant follow-ups, she was symptom-free with a full range of motion of the spine.
Imaging of Spondylolysis: The Evolving Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
TLDR
This column will review the various imaging techniques available for assessing acute lumbar spondylolysis with emphasis on the evolving role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Lumbosacral Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis.
TLDR
Conservative management is first-line for low-grade injury with surgical intervention indicated for refractory symptoms, severe spondylolisthesis, or considerable neurologic deficit.
Management of Lumbar Spondylolysis in Athletes: Role of Imaging
TLDR
Roles for imaging, in particular MRI, include: (a) proactive screening and early detection, (b) diagnosis of a symptomatic lesion and (c) monitor healing and readiness to return to sport.
Management of Lumbar Spondylolysis
TLDR
Spondylolysis is common in young females at L5 pars and presented with LBP in most cases, and different surgical procedure is safe and effective in management than conservative treatment.
L5 spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis: a comprehensive review with an anatomic focus
TLDR
The anatomy and pathology of spondylosis andSpondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra, a relatively common cause of low back pain, especially in young athletes, and a lessCommon cause of neurologic compromise is reviewed.
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References

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TLDR
This essay illustrates the MR findings of lumbosacral spondylolysis and associated entrapment and direct impingement of the spinal nerve root.
Imaging of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis
TLDR
The L5 vertebra is by far the most common site of spondylolysis, and it becomes progressively rarer with age, and the defect is estimated to occur in approximately 6 % of the population at some time in their lives with a greater prevalence in Eskimos, males and caucasians.
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TLDR
From 1989 to 1996, 275 patients with back pain symptoms and spondylolysis of the lumbar spine were reviewed and surgery to repair the pars defect by internal fixation and bone grafting seemed to be clinically effective.
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TLDR
The lumbar index reflecting the degree of wedge deformity of the spondylolytic vertebra was shown to be the only variable of prognostic value for the development of vertebral slipping.
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TLDR
The results indicate that the ad vanced stage of a pars interarticularis defect in an immature spine is a risk factor for spondylolisthesis.
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TLDR
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TLDR
In situ L4 to S1 fusion with cast immobilization is safe and effective for alleviating back pain and neurologic symptoms and instrumented reduction and fusion techniques permit improved correction of sagittal spinal imbalance and more rapid rehabilitation but are associated with a higher risk of iatrogenic nerve root injuries than in situ techniques.
Lumbar spine spondylolysis in the adult population: using computed tomography to evaluate the possibility of adult onset lumbar spondylosis as a cause of back pain
TLDR
An overall prevalence of pars defects of 8.0% in the general population suggests that the development of symptomatic lumbar pars defects do not occur in this population and should not be considered as a rare but potentially treatable cause of new onset low back pain in adults.
Diagnosis and evaluation of spondylolisthesis and/or spondylolysis on axial CT.
A critical review was made of the CT findings in 300 patients who underwent axial CT of the lumbar spine in which spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis had been diagnosed. Findings indicate that
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