Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Detection with Palpation: Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Criterion-Related Validity

@article{Collaer2006LumbarIS,
  title={Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Detection with Palpation: Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Criterion-Related Validity},
  author={Jeff W. Collaer and D Michael Mckeough and William G. Boissonnault},
  journal={Journal of Manual \& Manipulative Therapy},
  year={2006},
  volume={14},
  pages={22 - 29}
}
Abstract Lumbar spinous process palpation to detect spondylolisthesis is a technique frequently used by clinicians and taught in professional education courses, but it has not been shown to be reliable or valid. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic utility of lumbar spinous palpation as a means of detecting isthmic spondylolisthesis in patients with low back pain. Interrater reliability was assessed by pair-wise comparison of the findings of three therapists palpating the… 
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TLDR
The study findings support the relationship between the PSIS, and the spinous process of S2 is more consistent when compared to the iliac crest and the spins of L4, and may be used to find S2 as a reference standard in validity and reliability palpation studies in the lower lumbar spine.
Guideline summary review: an evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of adult isthmic spondylolisthesis.
TLDR
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