PURPOSE To examine the relationship between incidence of later, local vascular events (restenosis and occlusion) and clinical factors including lipid levels after surgical or endovascular treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS Consecutive 418 PAD lesions (in 308 patients under the age of 70) treated with surgical (n = 188) or endovascular (n = 230) repair for iliac (n = 228) and infrainguinal (n = 190) lesions were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical features and lipid levels were compared between patients who developed vascular events (n = 51; VE group) and those who did not (n = 257; NoVE group). RESULTS Among assessed factors, post-therapeutic low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (mg/dL) were significantly higher in the VE group (120.4 ± 31.2) than in the NoVE group (108.2 ± 25.1) (P = 0.01). Infrainguinal lesions were more common in the VE than in the NoVE group (P <0.001). Cox hazard analysis indicated that infrainguinal lesions relative to iliac lesions significantly increased the risk of vascular events (hazard ratio (HR) 3.35; 95% CI 1.63-6.90; P = 0.001) and post-therapeutic LDL-C levels <130 (mg/dL) decreased the risk (HR 0.34; 95%CI 0.17-0.67; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Lowered post-therapeutic LDL-C levels can decrease the risk of later, local vascular events after PAD treatment. These results may support the rationale for aggressive lipid-modifying therapy for PAD.