Lower-level visual processing and models of light adaptation.

  title={Lower-level visual processing and models of light adaptation.},
  author={Donald C. Hood},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  • D. Hood
  • Published 1998
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Annual review of psychology
Before there was a formal discipline of psychology, there were attempts to understand the relationship between visual perception and retinal physiology. Today, there is still uncertainty about the extent to which even very basic behavioral data (called here candidates for lower-level processing) can be predicted based upon retinal processing. Here, a general framework is proposed for developing models of lower-level processing. It is argued that our knowledge of ganglion cell function and… 

Figures from this paper

Simulation of the Retina: a Tool for Visual prostheses

This paper presents a biologically plausible model of the retina at the cell level and its implementation as a real-time retinal simulation software, which features the non-uniform sampling of the visual information by the photoreceptor cells, thenon-separable spatio-temporal properties ofThe retina, the subsequent generation of the Parvocellular and Magnocellular pathways, and the nonlinear equalization of luminance and contrast at the local level.

Positional adaptation reveals multiple chromatic mechanisms in human vision.

Results indicate that not only is positional information processed independently within the L/M, S/(L+M), and L+M channels, but that when adapting and test stimuli are extended to non-cardinal axes, the existence of multiple chromatically tuned mechanisms is revealed.

A temporal model for early vision that explains detection thresholds for light pulses on flickering backgrounds

The model can explain the psychophysical data for the full range of modulation frequencies tested, as well as detection thresholds obtained for test pulses on backgrounds with increment and decrement steps in intensity.

Chapter 3 – Spatial Vision

Confrontation of Retinal Adaptation Model with Key Features of Psychophysical Gain Behavior Dynamics

The model suggests that the temporal decline in the response of the retinal ganglion cells is a reflection of the adaptation mechanism ("curve shifting"), which is applied to each cell receptive-field (RF) region (center and surround) separately, and only then the subtraction operation between the two regions is performed.

Light adaptation in cone vision involves switching between receptor and post-receptor sites

This work finds that post-receptor adaptation occurs as signals are relayed from cone bipolar cells to ganglion cells, and finds that the two adaptive mechanisms are essentially mutually exclusive.

Human Vision and Perception

This chapter covers some basic aspects of the fundamentals of the human visual perception and introduces the reader to three important streams of information processing pertinent to lighting and display technologies, namely, spatial vision, flicker fusion, and color vision.

Rod-cone convergence in the retina

The results obtained from the retinal model show that if incorporated in the design of retinal prosthesis and visual systems used in robotics, there should be marked improvement during visual processing, and it is demonstrated that introducing convergence in the OPL improves the perception of input stimuli and extends the range of adaptation to light levels.



Visual information processing in primate cone pathways. I. A model

A simple retinal model is presented, which qualitatively accounts for the achromatic information processing in the primate cone system, to demonstrate how different adaptation mechanisms play a role in extending the operating range of thePrimate retina.

Model for visual luminance discrimination and flicker detection.

This model accurately predicts the psychophysical results of flicker detection, the Ferry–Porter and Weber laws in the ranges where they apply, the effects of light adaptation, and it accounts for individual differences.

Sequential ideal-observer analysis of visual discriminations.

  • W. Geisler
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological review
  • 1989
A new analysis is described, based on the concept of the ideal observer in signal detection theory, that allows one to trace the flow of discrimination information through the initial physiological stages of visual processing, for arbitrary spatio-chromatic stimuli.

A neural model of foveal light adaptation and afterimage formation

A nonlinear dynamical model is developed incorporating aspects of retinal circuitry along with both ON- and OFF-center M and P pathways that are shown to account for many aspects of foveal light adaptation, including negative afterimage formation, and to explain a number of the physiological differences between M andP ganglion cells, including their differing contrast-response functions.

Visual detection following retinal damage: predictions of an inhomogeneous retino-cortical model

A model of human visual detection performance has been developed, based on available anatomical and physiological data for the primate visual system, and predictions were reasonably good for grating and airplane targets.

Fourier models and the loci of adaptation.

  • W. Makous
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 1997
It is concluded that multiplicative adaptation often has effects identical to response compression followed by subtractive adaptation and that, perhaps as a consequence, there is no evidence of retinal gain changes in human cone vision until light levels are well above those available in natural scenes and in most contemporary psychophysical experiments.

Spatiotemporal adaptation model for retinal ganglion cells.

  • R. DahariH. Spitzer
  • Biology
    Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision
  • 1996
An adaptation model for the level of the ganglion cell in the retina is presented and its simulations show a good agreement with a wide variety of physiological studies.

How parallel are the primate visual pathways?

This proposal that the cortical and subcortical pathways are continuous, so that distinct channels of information that arise in the retina remain segregated up to the highest levels of visual cortex has far-reaching implications for the understanding of the functional organization of the visual system.

Visual information processing in primate cone pathways. II. Experiments

Experiments with more complex stimuli further reveal how the computer retina enhances spatio-temporal contrast information and adapts to a wide range of illumination levels much like the primate retina.

Contrast gain control in the primate retina: P cells are not X-like, some M cells are

The similarity in dynamics between primate M cells and cat X and Y retinal ganglion cells suggests the possibility that P cells, being different from either group, are a primate specialization not found in the retinae of lower mammals.