Lower Bounds for Non-Black-Box Zero Knowledge

  title={Lower Bounds for Non-Black-Box Zero Knowledge},
  author={Boaz Barak and Yehuda Lindell and Salil P. Vadhan},
  booktitle={IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
We show new lower bounds and impossibility results for general (possibly non-black-box ) zero-knowledge proofs and arguments. Our main results are that, under reasonable complexity assumptions: 1. There does not exist a two-round zero-knowledge proof system with perfect completeness for an NP-complete language. The previous impossibility result for two-round zero knowledge, by Goldreich and Oren (J. Cryptology, 1994) was only for the case of auxiliary-input zero-knowledge proofs and arguments… CONTINUE READING



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