Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression
PURPOSE The purpose of this article is to describe androgen deficiency in men, the consequences of this clinically underdiagnosed endocrine disorder, and its relationship to the metabolic syndrome and the association with type 2 diabetes. An overview of prevalence, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of male hypogonadism is presented. Method Established guidelines were used to provide definition, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring information for male hypogonadism. A literature review from 1990 to 2007 revealed study findings that identify the link between low testosterone in men and the development of type 2 diabetes. The following databases were used to review and analyze the current literature: CINAHL, PubMed, and MEDLINE. RESULTS An analysis of 26 studies was completed. The key findings in all of these studies show that there is a link between low levels of testosterone and an adverse metabolic profile (ie, obesity and insulin resistance). There is evidence that hypogonadism is associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in men. CONCLUSION Male hypogonadism is a clinical condition that affects a significant number of men in the United States and can affect up to 50% of men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The implications for diabetes educators are two-fold: first, there is a high prevalence of low testosterone in men with type 2 diabetes, and second, educators need to have a better understanding of this disease state to provide instructional guidance for their patients and to coordinate care with other clinicians.