Low natural levels of Nosema ceranae in Apis mellifera queens.


Queens are the primary female reproductive individuals in honey bee colonies and, while they are generally free from Nosema ceranae infection, they are nevertheless susceptible. We sought to determine whether queens are naturally infected by N. ceranae, as these infections could be a factor in the rapid spread of this parasite. Queens were analyzed using… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2012.04.001


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