Low-level lead-induced neurotoxicity in children: an update on central nervous system effects

  title={Low-level lead-induced neurotoxicity in children: an update on central nervous system effects},
  author={Yoram Finkelstein and Morri E Markowitz and John F. Rosen},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},

Neurotoxic Effects and Biomarkers of Lead Exposure: A Review

An overview of the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children, adults, and experimental animals at both cellular and molecular levels is presented, and the biomarkers of lead exposure that are useful for risk assessment in the field of environmental health are discussed.

Molecular targets of lead in brain neurotoxicity

This review outlines the most recent hypotheses and evidences that link lead poisoning to impairment of these protein functions, as well as the in vitro experimental approaches that are most likely to provide information on basic mechanicistic processes.

Neurotoxicity of lead. Hypothetical molecular mechanisms of synaptic function disorders.

This review presents the hypothetical molecular mechanism by which Pb disrupts synapse formation and plasticity in developing hippocampal neurons and the role of the NMDA receptor-dependent signaling pathway and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mechanism of Pb neurotoxicity at the synapse level.

Neurotoxicity and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review.

There is no safe threshold for lead exposure: Α literature review.

Lead was and still is an environmental factor that increases neurologic and psychiatric morbidity and also causes developmental disorders, especially in deprived areas, and Prevention should be the single most important way of dealing with lead poisoning.

Behavioral impairments related to lead-induced developmental neurotoxicity in chicks

The results indicate that the in ovo exposure to lead induces important deficits on motor behavior of chicks during the first postnatal week and such phenomena are related to lead deposition in the cerebellar tissue during embryonic development.

Cerebellar and Hypocampal Changes Induced by Lead in Wistar Rats: The Role of Ocimum gratissimium Leaves Extract

The brain is the organ most studied in lead toxicity with symptoms of dullness, forgetfulness, irritability, poor attention span, headache, fatigue, impotence, dizziness and depression, the human race is worried by increasing load of environmental contaminants.

Brainstem Neural Conduction Biomarkers in Lead-Exposed Children of Andean Lead-Glaze Workers

  • S. Counter
  • Medicine
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine
  • 2002
The results demonstrate some evidence of abnormal, possibly Pb-induced neural conduction delays in some individual children but a remarkable overall neurobiological functioning in severe, chronic pediatric Pb intoxication without measurable impairment of brainstem auditory nuclei and tracts, as evidenced by neurophysiological conduction times.

Lead neurotoxicity in children: Is prenatal exposure more important than postnatal exposure?

The hypothesis that the amount of maternal bone lead stores is the relevant parameter for predicting the level of neurotoxicity of this metal gives some optimism for the future.

Chronic low-level Pb exposure during development alters proteins involved in energy metabolism in auditory neurons of the brainstem

Chronic Pb exposure alters the expression of proteins involved in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism including VDAC and creatine kinase B, supporting the hypothesis that Pb disrupts energy metabolism in auditory neurons.



Mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity.

Dose-dependent bimodal effect of low-level lead exposure on the developing hippocampal region of the rat: a volumetric study.

It is concluded that lead has a dose dependent bimodal influence on developing hippocampal components and this results provide evidence that lead primarily affects newly formed neuronal components.

Health effects of lead at low exposure levels. Expert consensus and rationale for lowering the definition of childhood lead poisoning.

  • J. F. Rosen
  • Medicine
    American journal of diseases of children
  • 1992
No threshold for the lead-IQ relationship has been established and federal agencies and advisory groups have redefined childhood lead poisoning as a BPb level of 0.48 μmol/L (10 μg/dL).

Even advantaged children show cognitive deficits from low-level lead toxicity.

Human findings cohere with substantial primate evidence, which consistently demonstrates measurable and long-lasting neurodevelopmental deficits from exposure to low levels of lead, which is associated with decrements in childhood cognitive performance.

The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. An 11-year follow-up report.

Exposure to lead in childhood is associated with deficits in central nervous system functioning that persist into young adulthood, and lead levels were inversely related to self-reports of minor delinquent activity.

Age-dependent neurotoxicity in rats chronically exposed to low levels of lead: calcium homeostasis in central neurons.

The present observations that chronic exposure of rats to low level lead ingestion does not effect the capacity of GTP to increase Cai2+ but attenuated the combined effects of G TP and IP3 in neurons further suggest that IP3 receptors are specifically down-regulated by prenatal lead exposure.

Human Lead Exposure

A meta-Analytic Review of Epidemiologic Studies of Low Level Lead Exposure and the IQ of Children and the Role of Values in Science and Policy concluded that values and policy should be considered in the case of Lead.

Evidence that lead acts as a calcium substitute in second messenger metabolism.

These studies implicate second messenger metabolism and protein kinase activation as potential sites for the disruptive action of lead upon nervous system function and could contribute to the subtle defects in brain function associated with low level poisoning.