Low gene copy number shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inherit genetically different nuclei

  title={Low gene copy number shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inherit genetically different nuclei},
  author={Mohamed Hijri and Ian R. Sanders},
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ancient asexually reproducing organisms that form symbioses with the majority of plant species, improving plant nutrition and promoting plant diversity. Little is known about the evolution or organization of the genomes of any eukaryotic symbiont or ancient asexual organism. Direct evidence shows that one AMF species is heterokaryotic; that is, containing populations of genetically different nuclei. It has been suggested, however, that the genetic… 
Genetic variability in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi : effect on gene transcription of "Oryza Sativa"
It is demonstrated that genetic exchange could influence expression of some symbiosis specific plant genes and the timing of the colonization of the fungi in plant roots and segregation could have a large impact on plant gene transcription.
Recombination in Glomus intraradices, a supposed ancient asexual arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus
The data show that AMF from one field have undergone recombination but that clonal lineages coexist, reconciling seemingly contradictory studies on whether AMF are clonal or form recombining populations.
Spore development and nuclear inheritance in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
It is concluded that the spores used for dispersal of AMF do not represent a stage in the life cycle with a single nucleus, raising the possibility that AMF, unlike all other known eukaryotic organisms, lack the genetic bottleneck of a single-nucleus stage.
Studying Genome Heterogeneity within the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Cytoplasm
It is argued that the Rhizophagus isolates under study might be heterokaryotic, at least for the putative single copy markers the authors studied, and special attention is warranted for the study of these ecologically important organisms.
Intra‐isolate genome variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi persists in the transcriptome
It is possible that, in AMF, multiple nuclear genomes contribute to a single phenotype, and this is the first study that investigates AMF intra‐isolate variation at the transcriptome level.
Extent of intra-isolate genetic polymorphism in glomus etunicatum using a molecular genetic approach
Two aspects of the genetics of AM fungi were studied, and the same marker gene was used to investigate differences in nuclear segregation at the time of sporulation, as evidenced by genetic variation among sister spores.
Nonself vegetative fusion and genetic exchange in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.
The ability to perform genetic crosses between AMF experimentally lays a foundation for understanding the genetics and evolutionary biology of these important plants symbionts and indicates that considerable promiscuity could occur in these fungi.
Genomic Organization and Mechanisms of Inheritance in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Contrasting the Evidence and Implications of Current Theories
Most plants, including the majority of crop species, associate with a specific group of soil fungi called arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which appear to be the oldest asexual multicellular eukaryotes and remain enigmatic.


Evidence for the evolution of multiple genomes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
It is concluded that mycorrhizal fungi have evolved to be multi-genomic, through accumulation of mutations in an essentially clonal genome, with some infrequent recombination events.
Glomales SSUrRNA gene diversity
Questions about genetic drift, infrequent recombination, concerted evolution and the validity of phylogenetic techniques have arisen because of the assumption that one spore of an AM fungus contains small subunit rRNA genes that belong, phylogenetically, to different families within the Glomales, namely the Gigasporaceae and Glomaceae.
Development of multiple genetic markers for studies of genetic variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using AFLP™
The AFLP technique generated a large number of fragments, and the potential for using the technique in population genetic studies of these important unculturable biotrophic fungi is discussed.
Organization of genetic variation in individuals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
the microbial communities from each site by growing either C. maculosa from the same region used in experiment 1, or a Festuca bunchgrass native to the region of soil origin, in pure soil. The two
Anastomosis Formation and Nuclear and Protoplasmic Exchange in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi
It is suggested that genetic exchange may occur through intermingling of nuclei during anastomosis formation and opens the way to studies of vegetative compatibility in natural populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity
It is shown that below-ground diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a major factor contributing to the maintenance of plant biodiversity and to ecosystem functioning, and that microbial interactions can drive ecosystem functions such as plant biodiversity, productivity and variability.