Low frequency hearing in cephalopods

  title={Low frequency hearing in cephalopods},
  author={Andrew Packard and Hans Erik Karlsen and Olav Sand},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
SummaryClassical conditioning was employed to test the sensitivity of cephalopods to vibrations between 1 and 100 Hz generated in a standing wave acoustic tube. The animals were trained to associate sound stimuli with a weak electric shock, and the recorded conditioned responses were changes in breathing and jetting activity. Five specimens of Sepia officinalis were tested, and all responded to these low frequency sounds. The relevant stimulus parameter was particle motion rather than sound… 
Sound detection by the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure
Both the AEP response characteristics and the range of responses suggest that squid detect sound similarly to most fish, with the statocyst acting as an accelerometer through which squid detect the particle motion component of a sound field.
Low‐frequency sounds induce acoustic trauma in cephalopods
The first morphological and ultrastructural evidence of massive acoustic trauma, not compatible with life, is presented in four cephalopod species subjected to low-frequency controlled-exposure experiments, indicating a need for further environmental regulation of human activities that introduce high-intensity, low- frequencies in the world's oceans.
Preliminary evaluation of underwater sound detection by the cephalopod statocyst using a forced oscillation model
The results indicate that the frequency response of the perception threshold of cephalopods to particle motion can be primarily understood using the forced oscillation model, while unknown factor(s) play a role in the higher frequency range.
Behavioural responses to infrasonic particle acceleration in cuttlefish
It is suggested that cuttlefish jet-propulsed escape behaviour has evolved to be elicited by the early hydrodynamic disturbances generated during predator encounters, and that the inner ear plays an essential role in the acoustic escape responses.
Peripheral and central nervous responses evoked by small water movements in a cephalopod
Evoked potentials can be recorded from the brain while stimulating the epidermal lines with weak water movements and show little or no onset or offset wave at the transitions of a frequency and amplitude modulation.
Detection of low-frequency tones and whale predator sounds by the American sand lance Ammodytes americanus.
Results show that A. americanus can detect the particle motion component of low- frequencies tones and pulse sounds, including those similar to the low-frequency components of megapclicks.
Behavioral responses to underwater sound in the small benthic octopus Octopus ocellatus (水産・生物音響特集号)
Responses of theOctopus ocellatus to 120 dB rms sound stimuli of various frequencies suggest that underwater sound may play an important role in the life of the octopus, possibly to detect predators.
Sensory evoked potentials in unanesthetized unrestrained cuttlefish: a new preparation for brain physiology in cephalopods
In a few loci relatively large slow Omitted Stimulus Potentials have been seen following the end of a train of flashes at more than 5/s; these are by definition event related potentials and a special, central form of OFF response.
Loudness-dependent behavioral responses and habituation to sound by the longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)
It is demonstrated that squid can exhibit a range of behavioral responses to sound include fleeing, deimatic and protean behaviors, all of which are associated with predator evasion.
Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis
The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz.


A field study of hearing in the cod,Gadus morhua L.
Field measurements of hearing in the cod have shown that these fish are sensitive to pure tones in the frequency range from 30 to 470 Hz with greatest sensitivity in the range 60 to 310 Hz, and it is concluded that the swimbladder plays an accessory role in hearing.
Why Cephalopods are Probably Not "Deaf"
Some behavioral information is added that, in contrast to Moynihan's hypothesis, indicates that cephalopods can perceive underwater vibrations.
Hearing and the Octopus Statocyst
These results of the experiments, when expressed in latencies of attack on food, gave little evidence that the octopus was able to hear, together with suggestions for any future investigations.
The response of theOctopus angular acceleration receptor system to sinusoidal stimulation
The results demonstrate that the octopus angular acceleration receptor system is divided into two sub-systems of differing sensitivities and that the dynamic response characteristics of the system show close parallels with those of the vertebrate semicircular canal system.
Detection of infrasound by the Atlantic cod.
The hypothesis that fish may utilize information about the infrasound pattern in the sea for orientation during migration, probably in addition to an array of other sensory inputs, is put forward.
Vibration Sensitivity in the Statocyst of the Northern Octopus, Eledone Cirrosa
The statocyst in octopus has been shown to be a detector system for gravity and angular acceleration and could also serve as a vibration or sound detector in a way analogous to the vibration/sound sensitivity of the vertebrate vestibular system, and experiments were undertaken to test this hypothesis.
A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: water waves generate microphonic potentials in the epidermal head lines ofSepia andLolliguncula
Electrophysiological recordings clearly identify these epidermal lines in the cuttlefishSepia and the squidLolliguncula as an invertebrate analogue to the mechanoreceptive lateral lines of fish and aquatic amphibians and thus as another example of convergent evolution between a sophisticated cephalopod and vertebrate sensory system.
Gravity response from angular acceleration receptors inOctopus vulgaris
It is hypothesized that the angular acceleration receptors ofOctopus are responsive to linear acceleration (gravity) in addition to their well established sensitivity to angular acceleration.
Die Arbeitsweise der Statolithenorgane von Octopus vulgaris
Summary1.In Octopus vulgaris the sensory epithelium (macula) of the gravity receptor is vertically oriented when the animal is in its normal position. Both left and right maculae subtend an angle of
Why are Cephalopods Deaf?
  • M. Moynihan
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1985
The Norris and M0hl hypothesis that some odontocete cetaceans, the "toothed" whales and dolphins, may debilitate prey by stunning them with very loud emitted sounds is still hypothetical; more controlled investigation is called for.