Low frequency hearing in cephalopods

@article{Packard2004LowFH,
  title={Low frequency hearing in cephalopods},
  author={Andrew Packard and Hans Erik Karlsen and Olav Sand},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
  year={2004},
  volume={166},
  pages={501-505}
}
SummaryClassical conditioning was employed to test the sensitivity of cephalopods to vibrations between 1 and 100 Hz generated in a standing wave acoustic tube. The animals were trained to associate sound stimuli with a weak electric shock, and the recorded conditioned responses were changes in breathing and jetting activity. Five specimens of Sepia officinalis were tested, and all responded to these low frequency sounds. The relevant stimulus parameter was particle motion rather than sound… 
Sound detection by the longfin squid (Loligo pealeii) studied with auditory evoked potentials: sensitivity to low-frequency particle motion and not pressure
TLDR
Both the AEP response characteristics and the range of responses suggest that squid detect sound similarly to most fish, with the statocyst acting as an accelerometer through which squid detect the particle motion component of a sound field.
Low‐frequency sounds induce acoustic trauma in cephalopods
TLDR
The first morphological and ultrastructural evidence of massive acoustic trauma, not compatible with life, is presented in four cephalopod species subjected to low-frequency controlled-exposure experiments, indicating a need for further environmental regulation of human activities that introduce high-intensity, low- frequencies in the world's oceans.
Preliminary evaluation of underwater sound detection by the cephalopod statocyst using a forced oscillation model
TLDR
The results indicate that the frequency response of the perception threshold of cephalopods to particle motion can be primarily understood using the forced oscillation model, while unknown factor(s) play a role in the higher frequency range.
Behavioural responses to infrasonic particle acceleration in cuttlefish
TLDR
It is suggested that cuttlefish jet-propulsed escape behaviour has evolved to be elicited by the early hydrodynamic disturbances generated during predator encounters, and that the inner ear plays an essential role in the acoustic escape responses.
Peripheral and central nervous responses evoked by small water movements in a cephalopod
TLDR
Evoked potentials can be recorded from the brain while stimulating the epidermal lines with weak water movements and show little or no onset or offset wave at the transitions of a frequency and amplitude modulation.
Detection of low-frequency tones and whale predator sounds by the American sand lance Ammodytes americanus.
TLDR
Results show that A. americanus can detect the particle motion component of low- frequencies tones and pulse sounds, including those similar to the low-frequency components of megapclicks.
Behavioral responses to underwater sound in the small benthic octopus Octopus ocellatus (水産・生物音響特集号)
TLDR
Responses of theOctopus ocellatus to 120 dB rms sound stimuli of various frequencies suggest that underwater sound may play an important role in the life of the octopus, possibly to detect predators.
Sensory evoked potentials in unanesthetized unrestrained cuttlefish: a new preparation for brain physiology in cephalopods
TLDR
In a few loci relatively large slow Omitted Stimulus Potentials have been seen following the end of a train of flashes at more than 5/s; these are by definition event related potentials and a special, central form of OFF response.
Loudness-dependent behavioral responses and habituation to sound by the longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)
TLDR
It is demonstrated that squid can exhibit a range of behavioral responses to sound include fleeing, deimatic and protean behaviors, all of which are associated with predator evasion.
Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis
TLDR
The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz.
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TLDR
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