Low-frequency electrical properties of polycrystalline saline ice and salt hydrates.

@article{Grimm2008LowfrequencyEP,
  title={Low-frequency electrical properties of polycrystalline saline ice and salt hydrates.},
  author={Robert Grimm and David E. Stillman and Steven F. Dec and Mark A. Bullock},
  journal={The journal of physical chemistry. B},
  year={2008},
  volume={112 48},
  pages={15382-90}
}
We measured the 1 mHz-1 MHz electrical properties of ice-hydrate binary systems formed from solutions of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgSO(4), with supplementary measurements of HCl. Below the eutectic temperature, electrical parameters are well described by mixing models in which hydrate is always the connected phase. Above the eutectic temperature, a salt concentration threshold of approximately 3 mM in the initial solution is required for the unfrozen brine fraction to form interconnected… CONTINUE READING
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Thermoelectric effects in ice crystals , I . Theory of the steady state

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