Low-frequency amphibious hearing in pinnipeds: methods, measurements, noise, and ecology.

@article{Kastak1998LowfrequencyAH,
  title={Low-frequency amphibious hearing in pinnipeds: methods, measurements, noise, and ecology.},
  author={David Kastak and Ronald J. Schusterman},
  journal={The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year={1998},
  volume={103 4},
  pages={
          2216-28
        }
}
  • D. Kastak, R. Schusterman
  • Published 4 June 1998
  • Environmental Science
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Aerial low-frequency (100-6400 Hz) hearing thresholds were obtained for one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and one northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Underwater thresholds over a similar frequency range (75-6300 or 6400 Hz) were obtained for these three animals in addition to another California sea lion. Such data are critical, not only for understanding mechanisms about amphibious hearing and relating them to pinniped ecology and… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Masking in three pinnipeds: underwater, low-frequency critical ratios.
TLDR
Behavioral techniques were used to determine underwater masked hearing thresholds for a northern elephant seal, a harbor seal, and a California sea lion, providing a means of estimating zones of auditory masking for pinnipeds exposed to anthropogenic noise sources.
Comparative assessment of amphibious hearing in pinnipeds
TLDR
An updated comparative analysis alters conventional views and demonstrates that many seals and sea lions have not necessarily sacrificed aerial hearing capabilities in favor of enhanced underwater sound reception, as well as several findings related to underwater hearing.
Hydrodynamic Perception in Seals and Sea Lions
TLDR
In the course of pinniped evolution at least two types of whiskers evolved that realized different mechanisms for the reception of external hydrodynamic information.
Underwater hearing in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): Expansion and interpretation of existing data
Measurements of underwater hearing sensitivity of pinnipeds have been made for 9 of 33 species, with most studies involving just one or two trained individuals. There is a need to refine and expand
Amphibious hearing in spotted seals (Phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements
TLDR
The hearing data reported herein are the first available for spotted seals and can inform best management practices for this vulnerable species in a changing Arctic.
Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements
TLDR
Psychophysical experiments with trained ringed seals show acute hearing abilities in both air and water, which are comparable to those of other phocid seals and considerably better than previously reported for this species.
In-air and underwater hearing sensitivity of a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)
TLDR
Thresholds obtained in water were lower than those obtained in air, indicating that the elephant seal is adapted for underwater hearing, and modifications are probably needed to cope with extreme static pressures related to deep diving and are likely to confer relatively good auditory sensitivity under water.
Morphometric Analyses of Ears in Two Familes of Pinnipeds
TLDR
The ear anatomy of three species of pinnipeds: an otariid, the California sea lion, and two phocids, the northern elephant seal and the harbor seal, was examined using computerized tomography (CT scans) and gross dissection, supporting a canalcentric system for pinniped sound reception and localization.
Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque.
California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) aerial hearing sensitivity measured using auditory steady-state response and psychophysical methods.
TLDR
A within-subject comparison of psychophysical and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures of aerial hearing sensitivity was conducted with a 1.5-yr-old California sea lion, finding the multiple ASSR method may be especially advantageous for hearing sensitivity measurements with otariid subjects that are untrained for psychophysical procedures.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 105 REFERENCES
Behavioral Capabilities of Seals and Sea Lions: A Review of Their Hearing, Visual, Learning and Diving Skills
Behavioral capabilities of seals and sea lions (the pinnipeds) are described and summarized in tabular form. Major features of sound detection, pitch perception, sound localization, visual spectral
AUDIOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF NORTHERN FUR SEALS, CALLORHINUS URSINUS
TLDR
Comparison of air and water audiograms shows Callorhinus is no exception to previous behavioral findings demonstrating that the „pinniped ear” is more suitable for hearing in water than in air.
Onboard acoustic recording from diving northern elephant seals.
TLDR
The feasibility of recording sounds from instruments attached to free-ranging seals is demonstrated, and in doing so, studying their behavioral and physiological response to fluctuations in ambient sounds is demonstrated.
Underwater Hearing in the Frog, Rana Catesbeiana
TLDR
This report is the first to compare aerial and underwater hearing abilities in any organism using electrode implants and an attempt is made to relate the results to morphology of the middle and inner ears.
Auditory sensitivity of a California sea lion to airborne sound.
  • R. Schusterman
  • Geology
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1974
TLDR
In‐air hearing sensitivity of Zalophus may be best in the frequency range most characteristic of their vocal signalling during the reproductive season, which is like the harbor and harp seals' ears.
First audiogram for marine mammals in the open ocean and at depth: Hearing and whistling by two white whales down to 30 atmospheres
In examining the potential impact of human‐made sound on sea mammals, it was considered that whale hearing sensitivity might diminish with increasing ambient pressure. To test the effect of depth,
Diving in darkness: whiskers as sense organs of the ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis)
TLDR
Underwater vocalization and the functional structure of different vibrissae of the ringed seal of Lake Saimaa, Eastern Finland, were studied and it is suggested that echolocation is used in orientation and feeding.
Biophysics of underwater hearing in anuran amphibians.
TLDR
It is concluded that the frog species examined respond to underwater sound pressure from about 200-3000 Hz with the middle ear cavity responsible for pressure transduction.
Underwater acoustic displays and individual variation in male harbour seals, Phoca vitulina
TLDR
There were significant differences between males with regard to the frequency measurements of the roars as well as to their entire acoustic displays but there was little intra-individual variation.
Seismic Communication in Northern Elephant Seals
TLDR
Northern elephant seals are large, sexually dimorphic, polygynous pinnipeds that breed on islands off the coasts of California and Baja California, Mexico and establish social hierarchies according to age and size while they compete among themselves for access to estrous females.
...
...