Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA instrument aboard Chandrayaan-1 mission

  title={Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA instrument aboard Chandrayaan-1 mission},
  author={Anil Bhardwaj and Stanislav Barabash and Yoshifumi Futaana Futaana and Yoichi Kazama and Kazushi Asamura and David H. McCann and R. Sridharan and Mats Holmstrom and Peter Wurz and Rickard N. Lundin},
  journal={Journal of Earth System Science},
This paper reports on the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) experiment that will be flown on the first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1. The SARA is a low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging mass spectrometer, which will perform remote sensing of the lunar surface via detection of neutral atoms in the energy range from 10 eV to 3 keV from a 100km polar orbit. In this report we present the basic design of the SARA experiment and discuss various scientific issues that will be addressed… 
Investigation of the solar wind-Moon interaction onboard Chandrayaan-1 mission with the SARA experiment
The SARA instrument is the first ever experiment to study the solar wind–planetary surface interaction via measurements of the sputtered atoms and neutralized back-scattered solar wind hydrogen.
The moon observed in energetic neutral Atoms: Review of the scientific findings from SARA/CENA on board of Chandrayaan-1
The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) instrument on board Chandrayaan-1 was exceptionally successful. The instrument not only achieved all its set science goals but also revealed several
Energetic neutral atom observations of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface
[1] SARA, the Sub-KeV Atom Analyzer, on board Chandrayaan-1 recorded the first image of a minimagnetosphere above a lunar magnetic anomaly using energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). It was shown that this
Energetic neutral atom imaging of the lunar surface
Since the Moon is not shielded by a global magnetic field or by an atmosphere, solar wind plasma impinges onto the lunar surface almost unhindered. Until recently, it was assumed that almost all of
New suprathermal proton population around the Moon: Observation by SARA on Chandrayaan‐1
We report a new population of suprathermal H+ (∼1.5–3 times the solar wind energy) around the Moon observed by Solar Wind Monitor (SWIM)/Sub‐keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) on Chandrayaan‐1.
A LENA Instrument onboard BepiColombo and Chandrayaan-1
Low‐energy neutral atom (LENA) observations bring us important information on particle environments around planetary objects such as Mercury and the Moon. In this paper, we report on a new
Chandrayaan-1: Science goals
The primary objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission are simultaneous chemical, mineralogical and topographic mapping of the lunar surface at high spatial resolution. These data should enable us to
Imaging and power generation strategies for chandrayaan-1
Certain aspects of mission strategies which will allow optimum power generation and imaging of the lunar surface are described.


Energetic neutral atom imaging mass spectroscopy of the Moon and Mercury environments
Scientific challenges of CHANDRAYAAN-1: the Indian lunar polar orbiter mission
The scientific objectives of the proposed CHANDRAYAAN-1 mission are simultaneous geochemical, mineralogical and photogeological studies of the whole lunar surface and some of the major scientific challenges.
The low-energy neutral atom imager for IMAGE
The `Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration’ (IMAGE) will be launched early in the year 2000. It will be the first mission dedicated to imaging, with the capability to determine how
Energetic neutral atom imaging at low altitudes from the Swedish microsatellite Astrid: Observations at low (≤10 keV) energies
Intense (≤106 cm−2 sr−1 s−1) fluxes of upflowing energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the polar cap have been observed in the energy range ∼0.1–10 keV (hydrogen assumed) by the ENA imager PIPPI
Low energy neutral atoms imaging of the Moon
IMAGE/LENA Observations of Neutral Atoms from the Solar Wind
We report observations of neutral atoms from the solar wind in the Earth's vicinity with the low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imager on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE)
Variation of lunar sodium emission intensity with phase angle (Paper 94GL01702) 2263
We report new measurements of the sodium emission intensity seen in a line of sight just above the surface of the Moon. These data show a strong dependence on lunar phase. The emission intensity
Lunar surface magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind: results from lunar prospector
Electron reflection maps of the regions antipodal to the Imbrium and Serenitatis impact basins, extending to 80 degreesS latitude, show that crustal magnetic fields fill most of the antipodAL zones of those basins.
First energetic neutral atom images from Polar
Energetic neutral atoms are created when energetic magnetospheric ions undergo charge exchange with cold neutral atoms in the Earth's tenuous extended atmosphere (the geocorona). Since they are
Mapping of crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar near side by the Lunar Prospector electron reflectometer
Lunar Prospector (LP) electron reflectometer measurements show that surface fields are generally weak in the large mare basalt filled impact basins on the near side but are stronger over highland