Low efficacy of non‐opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms

  title={Low efficacy of non‐opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms},
  author={Derik Hermann and Eckard Klages and Helga Welzel and Karl F. Mann and Bernhard Croissant},
  journal={Addiction Biology},
Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid‐dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non‐opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid‐dependent patients. We hypothesized that non‐opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid‐dependent… 
Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in the United States, 1999-2010.
Examination of the association between medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose mortality in each year after implementation of the law showed that such laws were associated with a lower rate of overdose mortality that generally strengthened over time.
Auricular neural stimulation as a new non-invasive treatment for opioid detoxification
Current experimental evidence indicates that this type of non-invasive neural stimulation has excellent potential to supplement medication assisted treatment in opioid detoxification with lower side effects and increased adherence to treatment.
Neuropsychological Functioning of Opiate-Dependent Patients: A Nonrandomized Comparison of Patients Preferring either Buprenorphine or Methadone Maintenance Treatment
In a free-choice administration of methadone or buprenorphine, there seems to be no difference in cognitive functioning.
Hyperbaric Oxygen to Assist Adults With Opioid Use Disorder in Reducing Methadone Dose
The evidence that HBOT is an acceptable, feasible adjunct warrants future trials to determine more conclusively effects on withdrawal symptoms associated with methadone dose taper.
Contribution of Marijuana Legalization to the U.S. Opioid Mortality Epidemic: Individual and Combined Experience of 27 States and District of Columbia
The marijuana protection hypothesis is not supported by recent U.S. data on opioid mortality trends, and legalizing marijuana appears to have contributed to the nation′s opioid mortality epidemic.
Dopamine Supersensitivity: A Novel Hypothesis of Opioid-Induced Neurobiological Mechanisms Underlying Opioid-Stimulant Co-use and Opioid Relapse
A neural circuit mechanism unique to withdrawal from opioid use is proposed with implications for increased stimulant sensitivity in previously stimulant-naïve or inexperienced populations and a mechanism by which stimulants would be uniquely reinforcing to persons with opioid physical dependence is delineated.
Medical Cannabis for the Management of Pain and Quality of Life in Chronic Pain Patients: A Prospective Observational Study.
The findings of this study add to the cumulative evidence in support of plant-based medical cannabis as a safe and effective treatment option and potential opioid medication substitute or augmentation therapy for the management of symptoms and quality of life in chronic pain patients.


Cocaine attenuates the severity of naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal.
  • T. Kosten
  • Biology, Psychology
    Life sciences
  • 1990
Reduction of opiate withdrawal-like symptoms by cocaine abuse during methadone and buprenorphine maintenance.
When using cocaine at a low maintenance opiate dose, persistent opiate withdrawal symptoms were reduced, which is consistent with previous naloxone-precipitated withdrawal studies and reconciles the contradictory findings of prior studies.
Understanding polydrug use: review of heroin and cocaine co-use.
Clinical and preclinical experimental evidence indicates that the simultaneous administration of cocaine and heroin does not induce a novel set of subjective effects, nor is it more reinforcing than either drug alone, especially when the doses of heroin and cocaine are high.
Effect of alprazolam on opiate withdrawal: a combined behavioural and microdialysis study.
  • A. Gray
  • Biology, Medicine
    European journal of pharmacology
  • 1996
Mood and affect during detoxification of opiate addicts: a comparison of buprenorphine versus methadone
The hypothesis that the combination of buprenorphine and carbamazepine leads to a better clinical outcome than does a combination of methadone and carbazepine in the detoxification of opioid addicts with additional multiple drug abuse is supported.
Opioid and cannabinoid modulation of precipitated withdrawal in delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine-dependent mice.
The findings taken together indicate that the mu-opioid receptor plays a modulatory role in cannabinoid dependence, thus implicating a reciprocal relationship between the cannabinoid and opioid systems in dependence.
Influence of different benzodiazepines on the experimental morphine abstinence syndrome
Results indicate that benzodiazepines can interfere with the expression of the morphine withdrawal syndrome and are effective in reducing jumping behavior and increased wet dog shake frequency.
Street pharmacology: uses of cocaine and heroin in the treatment of addiction.
β‐Endorphin elevations in the ventral tegmental area regulate the discriminative effects of Δ‐9‐tetrahydrocannabinol
Results indicate that certain psychotropic effects of THC related to drug abuse liability are regulated by THC‐induced elevations in extracellular β‐endorphin levels in brain areas involved in opiate reward and reinforcement processes.