Low Mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals

@article{Planavsky2014LowMA,
  title={Low Mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals},
  author={Noah J. Planavsky and Christopher T. Reinhard and Xiangli Wang and Danielle Thomson and Peter J. McGoldrick and R H Rainbird and Thomas Johnson and Woodward W. Fischer and Timothy W. Lyons},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={346},
  pages={635 - 638}
}
Low oxygen limited the rise of animals Oxygen levels in Earth's early atmosphere had an important influence on the evolution of complex life. Planavsky et al. analyzed the isotopic signature of chromium in sedimentary rocks from across the globe—a proxy for past oxygen levels. Oxygen levels in the mid-Proterozoic (1.6 billion to 900 million years ago) were very low: less than 0.1% of the modern atmosphere. These low levels were probably below the minimum oxygen requirements for the earliest… 
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The Great Oxygenation Event
  • R. Ligrone
  • Chemistry
    Biological Innovations that Built the World
  • 2019
Old sedimentary rocks record the history of oxygen in the form of redox-sensitive chemical species such as iron, uranium or cerium ions, and mass-independent fractionation of sulphur isotopes. These
Mid-Proterozoic redox evolution and the possibility of transient oxygenation events.
TLDR
While prevailing conditions during much of this time would likely have presented challenges for early animals, there were intervals when oxygenated conditions were more widespread and could have favored yet undetermined advances in eukaryotic innovation, including critical early steps toward animal evolution.
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