Low Birth Weight and Schizophrenia

@article{Rifkin1994LowBW,
  title={Low Birth Weight and Schizophrenia},
  author={Larry Rifkin and S. Lewis and Peter B. Jones and Brian Toone and R. M. Murray},
  journal={British Journal of Psychiatry},
  year={1994},
  volume={165},
  pages={357 - 362}
}
Background Low birth weight has been postulated to be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Method Obstetric history, premorbid adjustment, and cognitive function during admission were assessed in 167 patients with DSM–III schizophrenia or affective psychosis. Results A birth weight of less than 2500 g was significantly more common in patients with schizophrenia than in those with affective psychosis. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly lower mean birth weight, a finding which was… 
Both low birthweight and high birthweight are associated with cognitive impairment in persons with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives
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Low birthweight and high birthweight were associated with lower performance in visuospatial reasoning, processing speed, set-shifting and verbal and visual working memory among persons with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives compared to individuals with birthweight in the intermediate range.
Association of schizophrenia with low maternal body mass index, small size at birth, and thinness during childhood.
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Indicators of intrauterine and childhood undernutrition are associated with an increased lifetime risk of schizophrenia, whereas other factors exhibited attenuated effects.
Small head circumference at birth in schizophrenia
Neurodevelopmental Schizophrenia: Obstetric Complications, Birth Weight, Premorbid Social Withdrawal and Learning Disabilities
TLDR
The findings seem to confirm the concept of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental process and show significant differences in OCs, birth weight, premorbid social and learning functioning between patients and their same-sex, healthy siblings.
Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: prenatal underdevelopment and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment.
TLDR
Brain damage associated with prenatal underdevelopment has a role in the pathogenesis of poor premorbid functioning and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment in some cases of schizophrenia.
Intra-uterine physical growth in schizophrenia: evidence confirming excess of premature birth
TLDR
The results suggest that prematurity at birth is associated with a risk of developing schizophrenia in adulthood, and there was no evidence that schizophrenics tend to have lower mean BW or smaller BHC.
Obstetric complications and the risk of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study of a national birth cohort.
TLDR
This study supports the theory of an association between obstetric complications and schizophrenia, and found that indicators of all 3 etiologic mechanisms were associated with increased point estimates of schizophrenia, although at lower risk levels.
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