Low Birth Weight and Schizophrenia

  title={Low Birth Weight and Schizophrenia},
  author={Larry Rifkin and S. Lewis and Peter B. Jones and Brian Toone and R. M. Murray},
  journal={British Journal of Psychiatry},
  pages={357 - 362}
Background Low birth weight has been postulated to be a risk factor for schizophrenia. Method Obstetric history, premorbid adjustment, and cognitive function during admission were assessed in 167 patients with DSM–III schizophrenia or affective psychosis. Results A birth weight of less than 2500 g was significantly more common in patients with schizophrenia than in those with affective psychosis. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly lower mean birth weight, a finding which was… 
Both low birthweight and high birthweight are associated with cognitive impairment in persons with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives
Low birthweight and high birthweight were associated with lower performance in visuospatial reasoning, processing speed, set-shifting and verbal and visual working memory among persons with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives compared to individuals with birthweight in the intermediate range.
Association of schizophrenia with low maternal body mass index, small size at birth, and thinness during childhood.
Indicators of intrauterine and childhood undernutrition are associated with an increased lifetime risk of schizophrenia, whereas other factors exhibited attenuated effects.
Small head circumference at birth in schizophrenia
Neurodevelopmental Schizophrenia: Obstetric Complications, Birth Weight, Premorbid Social Withdrawal and Learning Disabilities
The findings seem to confirm the concept of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental process and show significant differences in OCs, birth weight, premorbid social and learning functioning between patients and their same-sex, healthy siblings.
Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: prenatal underdevelopment and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment.
Brain damage associated with prenatal underdevelopment has a role in the pathogenesis of poor premorbid functioning and subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment in some cases of schizophrenia.
Intra-uterine physical growth in schizophrenia: evidence confirming excess of premature birth
The results suggest that prematurity at birth is associated with a risk of developing schizophrenia in adulthood, and there was no evidence that schizophrenics tend to have lower mean BW or smaller BHC.
Obstetric complications and the risk of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study of a national birth cohort.
This study supports the theory of an association between obstetric complications and schizophrenia, and found that indicators of all 3 etiologic mechanisms were associated with increased point estimates of schizophrenia, although at lower risk levels.


Perinatal complications in births to low socioeconomic status schizophrenic and depressed women
The study extended earlier work on the perinatal status of infants born to schizophrenic women by including measures of severity of maternal disturbance, mother's age, IQ, and premorbid social competence, and family composition.
Familial, obstetric, and other clinical correlates of minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia.
Minor physical anomalies indicate early dysmorphogenesis in schizophrenia, particularly in males, which appears to be associated more reliably with genetic rather than obstetric factors and with cognitive impairment.
The Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys X: Obstetric Complications, Family History and Abnormal Movements
There was a trend for tardive dyskinesia to be more common in those schizophrenic patients with no obstetric complications but a family history of schizophrenia, and there was no evidence that schizophrenia patients with a history of Obstetric complications were less likely to have a first-degree relative with a histories of psychiatric illness leading to in-patient care.
Premorbid Social Underachievement in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenic patients who failed to achieve their fathers' social status had poorer educational qualifications than those who equalled or bettered their paternal social class, despite similar premorbid IQ scores and age at onset of psychosis.
Risk of schizophrenia in adults born after obstetric complications and their association with early onset of illness: a controlled study.
Patients with schizophrenia, particularly males, have an excess of obstetric complications in their early developmental histories, and such complications are associated with a younger age at onset of their disease.
Pre-morbid Adjustment and Personality in Psychosis
Analysis of factors associated with pre-morbid deficits showed a highly significant interaction of diagnosis with sex, such that schizophrenic men showed much greater pre-Morbid impairment than either schizophrenic women or men with affective disorder.
Obstetric complications, neurodevelopmental deviance, and risk of schizophrenia.
Perinatal conditions and infant development in children with schizophrenic parents.
A higher incidence of mildly low birth weight in children born to schizophrenics is associated with developmental abnormalities at one year, and a large number of results which involve the schizophrenic fathers are reported.
Complications of pregnancy and delivery in relation to psychosis in adult life: data from the British perinatal mortality survey sample.
The findings give no support to theories that factors predicting perinatal mortality contribute significantly to causation of schizophrenic illness, and decreased gestation length in relation to affective disorder is required.