Low‐calorie Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes: A Review of the Safety Issues

  title={Low‐calorie Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes: A Review of the Safety Issues},
  author={Manfred Kroger and Kathleen Meister and Ruth Kava},
  journal={Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety},
Sugar-free or reduced-sugar foods and beverages are very popular in the United States and other countries, and the sweeteners that make them possible are among the most conspicuous ingredients in the food supply. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the 5 low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the United States–acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, and sucralose. A controversial animal cancer study of aspartame conducted using unusual… 
High intensity sweeteners chemicals structure, properties and applications
The levels of these non-nutritive high intensive sweeteners used in foods, beverages, dietary supplements, and pharmaceutical products are based on the approved daily intake (ADI) by FDA and by other safety authorities worldwide.
Chemistry and Use of Artificial Intense Sweeteners
Sweeteners are additives which provide the basic taste of sweetness to a food product. Traditionally sugars are used as sweeteners in food. In addition to sweet taste they provide energy of 4 kcal/g.
Artificial sweeteners – a review
Now a days sugar free food are very much popular because of their less calorie content. So food industry uses various artificial sweeteners which are low in calorie content instead of high calorie
Despite doubts about the safety of artificial sweeteners, many studies have shown the absence of dangers associated with their use (if used in the acceptable daily intake, ADI).
Evaluation of the sweetener content in diet/light/zero foods and drinks by HPLC-DAD
Artificial sweeteners are widely used in foods and beverages to replace sugars. It is essential to monitor the content of these compounds, as amounts over the legal limit may create harmful effects
Non-nutritive Sweeteners
Five non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are currently approved for use in the United States as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration: acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, and sucralose; stevia glycosides are also permitted for use based on a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) petition submitted to the FDA.
Added Sugars and Low- and No-Calorie Sweeteners in a Representative Sample of Food Products Consumed by the Spanish ANIBES Study Population
The results show the diversity of foods groups including these ingredients, which should be periodically updated to include LNCS and added sugars in food composition databases to facilitate their assessment and monitoring in nutritional surveys.


Reported Use of Reduced‐sugar Foods and Beverages Reflect High‐quality Diets
Comparisons were made between demographic characteristics, body mass index, food group servings, food intake amounts, and nutrient densities, and RS users consistently reported significantly higher intakes of fruit, lower intakes of discretionary fat and added sugars, and equal orLower intakes of other foods, except for greater intake of yogurt and frozen and gelatin desserts.
Aspartame: scientific evaluation in the postmarketing period.
Evaluation of the anecdotal reports of adverse health effects revealed that the reported effects were generally mild and also common in the general population and that there was no consistent or unique pattern of symptoms that could be causally linked to consumption of aspartame.
Aspartame: review of safety.
The safety testing of aspartame has gone well beyond that required to evaluate the safety of a food additive, and there are no unresolved questions regarding its safety under conditions of intended use.
Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review.
  • B. Rolls
  • Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1991
Preliminary clinical trials suggest that aspartame may be useful aid in a complete diet-and-exercise program or in weight maintenance, and intense sweeteners have never been found to cause weight gain in humans.
Acceptable daily intake vs actual intake: the aspartame example.
The acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the postmarketing surveillance of consumption levels for a food additive, using the widely used food additive aspartame (APM, L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) as an example is discussed.
Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake.
  • J. Rodin
  • Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 1990
When subjects drank the fructose preload, they subsequently ate fewer overall calories and fewer grams of fat than when they drank any of the other preloads, and the aspartame load did not stimulate intake beyond the plain-water control.
Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases.
  • D. Heber
  • Medicine
    Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • 2004
Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day.
Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.
The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment.