Lost audio packets steganography: the first practical evaluation

  title={Lost audio packets steganography: the first practical evaluation},
  author={Wojciech Mazurczyk},
This paper presents first experimental results for an Internet Protocol (IP) telephony-based steganographic method called lost audio packets steganography (LACK. [] Key Result The results presented in this paper were obtained on the basis of a functional LACK prototype and show the method’s impact on the quality of voice transmission. Achievable steganographic bandwidth for the different IP telephony codecs is also calculated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figures and Tables from this paper

Reliability enhancement and packet loss recovery of any steganographic method in voice over IP
This paper proposes a scheme which is capable of enhancing the reliability of any VoIP steganographic method, and implements the scheme on matrix embedding using binary Hamming codes steganography, which results in a reasonable reliability, a good speech quality and a very high Steganographic bandwidth.
DST approach to enhance audio quality on lost audio packet steganography
The proposed DST-based method demonstrates the possibilities in exploiting the perceptual space of the multimedia signal and results show that the DST on LACK achieves up to 24 % more capacity over the LACK scheme.
A Reliable Covert Communication Scheme Based on VoIP Steganography
It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm that enables data hiding in G.711, the most commonly used voice codec for VoIP devices, while gracefully handling packet loss performs well compared to other algorithms proposed in the literature in real world environments, by maintaining high throughput and good speech quality.
Using transcoding for hidden communication in IP telephony
The paper presents a new steganographic method for IP telephony called TranSteg (Transcoding Steganography), which aims to find a codec that will result in a similar voice quality but smaller voice payload size than the originally selected.
On importance of steganographic cost for network steganography
Steganographic cost can be an important characteristic that allows to express hidden data carrier degradation - similarly as MSE (Mean-Square Error) or PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) are utilized for digital media steganography.
A packet loss tolerant algorithm for information hiding in voice over IP
This paper proposes an algorithm that enables data hiding in G.711, the most commonly used voice codec for VoIP devices, while gracefully handling packet loss, and demonstrates that the algorithm performs well compared to other algorithms proposed in the literature in real world environments where packet loss is inevitable.
VoIP steganography and its Detection—A survey
This article is a first survey of the existing Voice over IP (VoIP) steganography methods and their countermeasures.
Security Enhancement in Audio Steganography by RSA Algorithm
This novel approach encompassing RSA and audio steganography successfully increases the security while sending textual information over diversified networks.
Performance analysis of current data hiding algorithms for VoIP
This paper test several current data hiding techniques on a variety of G.711 audio recordings with the intent of giving readers a clearer understanding of which of the algorithms would best suit their purposes, and uses important performance metrics to evaluate the algorithms.


Steganography of VoIP Streams
The results of the experiment, that was performed to estimate a total amount of data that can be covertly transferred during typical VoIP conversation phase, regardless of steganalysis, are also included in this paper.
An adaptive steganography scheme for voice over IP
This paper presents an adaptive steganography scheme for VoIP that enhances the embedding transparency by taking into account the similarity between Least Significant Bits (LSBs) and embedded messages and introduces the notion of Partial Similarity Value (PSV).
LACK—a VoIP steganographic method
The analytical results presented in the paper concern the influence of LACK’s hidden data insertion procedure on the method’'s impact on quality of voice transmission and its resistance to steganalysis.
An Approach of Covert Communication Based on the Adaptive Steganography Scheme on Voice over IP
This paper presents an adaptive steganography scheme that selects lower embedding bit rate in the flat segments, while the sharp segments can camouflage more secret message and can be used in real-time VoIP network with high hiding capacity.
New security and control protocol for VoIP based on steganography and digital watermarking
A new, lightweight security and control protocol for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service is presented, based on two information hiding techniques: digital watermarking and steganography and it is capable of exchanging and verifying QoS and security parameters.
A Technique of Lossless Steganography for G.711 Telephony Speech
  • N. Aoki
  • Computer Science
    2008 International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing
  • 2008
The proposed technique exploits the characteristics of G.711 for embedding steganogram information without any degradation and the capacity of the proposed technique is shown.
Practical Data Hiding in TCP/IP
By passing supplementary information through IPv4 headers it is demonstrated how security mechanisms can be enhanced in routers, firewalls, and for services such as authentication, audit and logging without considerable additions to software or hardware.
ReLACK: A Reliable VoIP Steganography Approach
  • Mohammad Hamdaqa, L. Tahvildari
  • Computer Science
    2011 Fifth International Conference on Secure Software Integration and Reliability Improvement
  • 2011
This paper modifies the (k, n) threshold secret sharing scheme, which is based on Lagrange's Interpolation, and applies a two phase approach on the LACK steganography mechanism to provide reliability and fault tolerance and to increase steganalysis complexity.
What are suspicious VoIP delays?
Voice over IP (VoIP) is unquestionably the most popular real-time service in IP networks today. Recent studies have shown that it is also a suitable carrier for information hiding. Hidden
Information Hiding in Real-Time VoIP Streams
This paper proposes a novel design of real-time speech hiding for G.711 codec, which is widely supported by almost every VoIP device and shows that the processing time for the proposed algorithm takes only 0.257 ms, suitable for real- time VoIP applications.