Losses and lifetimes of metals in the economy

@article{CharpentierPoncelet2022LossesAL,
  title={Losses and lifetimes of metals in the economy},
  author={Alexandre Charpentier Poncelet and Christoph Helbig and Philippe Loubet and Antoine Beylot and St{\'e}phanie Muller and J. Villeneuve and Bertrand Laratte and Andrea Thorenz and Axel Tuma and Guido W Sonnemann},
  journal={Nature Sustainability},
  year={2022},
  volume={5},
  pages={717-726}
}
The consumption of most metals continues to rise following ever-increasing population growth, affluence and technological development. Sustainability considerations urge greater resource efficiency and retention of metals in the economy. We model the fate of a yearly cohort of 61 extracted metals over time and identify where losses are expected to occur through a life-cycle lens. We find that ferrous metals have the longest lifetimes, with 150 years on average, followed by precious, non-ferrous… 

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