Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue increases transforming growth factor beta-mediated invasion with enhanced SMAD3 transcriptional activity.

@article{Hjelmeland2005LossOP,
  title={Loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue increases transforming growth factor beta-mediated invasion with enhanced SMAD3 transcriptional activity.},
  author={Anita B. Hjelmeland and Mark D Hjelmeland and Qing Chun Shi and Janet Leigh Hart and Darell D Bigner and Xiao Fan Wang and Christopher D. Kontos and Jeremy Rich},
  journal={Cancer research},
  year={2005},
  volume={65 24},
  pages={11276-81}
}
In normal epithelial tissues, the multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) acts as a tumor suppressor through growth inhibition and induction of differentiation whereas in advanced cancers, TGF-beta promotes tumor progression through induction of tumor invasion, neoangiogenesis, and immunosuppression. The molecular mechanisms through which TGF-beta shifts from a tumor suppressor to a tumor enhancer are poorly understood. We now show a role for the tumor suppressor… CONTINUE READING

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