The present investigation examined the effect of pregnancy on the anticontractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the rat. Ring segments of the aorta, with and without PVAT, were set up in organ baths for isometric tension recording. In both groups, concentration-response curves to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were displaced to the right with a reduction of the maximum response in aorta segments with PVAT. The anticontractile effect of PVAT was attenuated on segments from pregnant rats. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP), an inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, enhanced 5-HT-induced contractions of aorta segments from pregnant and nonpregnant rats only when PVAT was attached. There was no difference in the effect of 4-aminopyridine on 5-HT-induced contractions of aorta segments with PVAT from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. There was also no significant difference in the expression of Kv7.4 channels in aorta segments (with PVAT) between pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected in PVAT from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The level of TNF-α was significantly greater in PVAT from pregnant rats. Treatment of pregnant rats with pentoxyphyline significantly reduced the level of TNF-α in the PVAT and restored the anticontractile effect of PVAT on aorta segments from pregnant rats. Finally, TNF-α (10 ng/mL) potentiated 5-HT-induced contractions of PVAT-containing pregnant rat aorta. These results would suggest that the loss of anticontractile effect of PVAT in pregnant rat aorta could be due to enhanced production of TNF-α in the PVAT in these rats.