Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?

@article{Bonanno2004LossTA,
  title={Loss, trauma, and human resilience: have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?},
  author={George A. Bonanno},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  year={2004},
  volume={59 1},
  pages={
          20-8
        }
}
  • G. Bonanno
  • Published 1 August 2008
  • Psychology
  • The American psychologist
Many people are exposed to loss or potentially traumatic events at some point in their lives, and yet they continue to have positive emotional experiences and show only minor and transient disruptions in their ability to function. Unfortunately, because much of psychology's knowledge about how adults cope with loss or trauma has come from individuals who sought treatment or exhibited great distress, loss and trauma theorists have often viewed this type of resilience as either rare or… 
Resilience in the Face of Potential Trauma
Until recently, resilience among adults exposed to potentially traumatic events was thought to occur rarely and in either pathological or exceptionally healthy individuals. Recent research indicates,
Resilience to loss and potential trauma.
TLDR
The question of whether resilience-building interventions can actually make people more resilient is critically evaluated, and a set of prototypical outcome patterns are identified that show multiple independent predictors of resilient outcomes.
The Human Capacity to Thrive in the Face of Potential Trauma
TLDR
It is surprising that some factors that promote resilience to potentially traumatic events may be maladaptive in other contexts, whereas other factors are more broadly adaptive.
Resilience in the face of potential trauma: clinical practices and illustrations.
TLDR
Three key points about resilience are reviewed: resilience is different from the process of recovery; resilience in the face of loss or potential trauma is common; and there are multiple and sometimes unexpected pathways to resilience.
Loss, Trauma, and Resilience in Adulthood
The first wave of research on loss and potentially traumatic events (PTEs) was dominated by either a psychopathological approach emphasizing individual dysfunction or an event approach emphasizing
Principles for Realizing Resilience: A New View of Trauma and Inner Resilience
Principles for Realizing Resilience: A New View of Trauma and Inner Resilience This paper offers a new view of trauma and human resilience based on three principles for realizing resilience. This
Ego-Resiliency as a Mediator Between Childhood Trauma and Psychological Symptoms
Clinical research has firmly established that individuals who experience psychological trauma during their childhood are likely to display psychological or functional disorders in adulthood. However,
Possible outcomes of cumulative trauma in mental-health: a case report
TLDR
The resilience factors that may have prevented a patient from developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a variety of severe potentially traumatic events are discussed.
Strengths Forged through Adversity
C risis and challenge are inherent in the human condition. The concept of family resilience extends our understanding of family functioning to situations of adversity. Family resilience involves the
Building Resistance, Resilience, and Recovery in the Wake of School and Workplace Violence
TLDR
A closer look at the concepts of resistance, resilience, and recovery and the need for research on interventions that promote them is taken, in the hope of applying the concepts and interventions to schools and the workplace.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 132 REFERENCES
Loss and human resilience
Ordinary magic. Resilience processes in development.
  • A. Masten
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 2001
TLDR
An examination of converging findings from variable-focused and person-focused investigations of resilience suggests that resilience is common and that it usually arises from the normative functions of human adaptational systems, with the greatest threats to human development being those that compromise these protective systems.
The myths of coping with loss.
TLDR
It is maintained that mistaken assumptions held about the process of coping with loss fail to acknowledge the variability that exists in response to loss, and may lead others to respond to those who have endured loss in ways that are unhelpful.
Resilience to loss and chronic grief: a prospective study from preloss to 18-months postloss.
TLDR
Key hypotheses in the literature pertaining to chronic grief and resilience were tested by identifying the preloss predictors of each pattern and chronic grief was associated with preloss dependency and resilience with pre Loss acceptance of death and belief in a just world.
Prospective patterns of resilience and maladjustment during widowhood.
TLDR
Results suggest that chronic grief stems from the upheaval surrounding the loss of a healthy spouse, whereas chronic depression results from more enduring emotional difficulties that are exacerbated by the loss.
Self-Enhancement as a Buffer Against Extreme Adversity: Civil War in Bosnia and Traumatic Loss in the United States
In a challenge to traditional views of mental health, Taylor and Brown argued that an overly positive or enhanced perception of the self was adaptive, particularly in conditions of extreme adversity.
Early intervention for trauma: Current status and future directions.
Although psychological debriefing (PD) represents the most common form of early intervention for recently traumatized people, there is little evidence supporting its continued use with individuals
Posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of female and male Vietnam veterans: risk factors, war-zone stressors, and resilience-recovery variables.
TLDR
Although war-zone stressors appeared preeminent for PTSD in men, posttrauma resilience-recovery variables were more salient for women, and researchers, policymakers, and clinicians are urged to take a broad view on trauma and its sequelae.
Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults.
TLDR
The effect size of all the risk factors was modest, but factors operating during or after the trauma, such as trauma severity, lack of social support, and additional life stress, had somewhat stronger effects than pretrauma factors.
Examining the Delayed Grief Hypothesis Across 5 Years of Bereavement
Traditional bereavement theories emphasize that it is crucial to work through the emotional meanings of a loss and that the failure to do so typically results in delayed grief symptoms. This article
...
...