Looking after Gdoo-naaganinaa: Precolonial Nishnaabeg Diplomatic and Treaty Relationships

@article{Simpson2008LookingAG,
  title={Looking after Gdoo-naaganinaa: Precolonial Nishnaabeg Diplomatic and Treaty Relationships},
  author={Leanne R. Simpson},
  journal={Wicazo Sa Review},
  year={2008},
  volume={23},
  pages={29 - 42}
}
It has long been known that Indigenous nations had their own processes for making and maintaining peaceful diplomatic relationships, such as Gdoo-naaganinaa,1 with other Indigenous nations prior to colonization.2 These “treaty processes” were grounded in the worldviews, language, knowledge systems, and political cultures of the nations involved, and they were governed by the common Indigenous ethics of justice, peace, respect, reciprocity, and accountability. Indigenous peoples understood these… 

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