Looking Back on the Discovery of α-Bungarotoxin

@article{Chang1999LookingBO,
  title={Looking Back on the Discovery of $\alpha$-Bungarotoxin},
  author={C.C. Chang},
  journal={Journal of Biomedical Science},
  year={1999},
  volume={6},
  pages={368 - 375}
}
  • C.C. Chang
  • Published 22 October 1999
  • Biology
  • Journal of Biomedical Science
This review is a personal narration by a retiring pharmacologist from Taiwan who looks back at his discovery of α-bungarotoxin from the historical perspective of Taiwan during the last 50 years, with accounts of his experiences and his efforts to overcome hardship. How the α-toxin was isolated and characterized as an irreversible specific nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antagonist, and how it subsequently became a useful experimental probe are presented here. The dilemma of… 
Contribution of a Snake Venom Toxin to Myasthenia Gravis: The Discovery of α-bungarotoxin in Taiwan
  • N. Chu
  • Biology
    Journal of the history of the neurosciences
  • 2005
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is now recognized as an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to acetylcholine (ACh) receptor lead to impairment of neuromuscular transmission. The discovery of
Three-Finger α-Neurotoxins and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Forty Years On
TLDR
More ambitious strategies can now be envisaged for engineering rationally designed novel activities on three-finger toxin scaffolds to generate lead peptides of therapeutic value that target the nicotinic pharmacopoeia.
Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Is a Target in Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • M. Pohanka
  • Biology, Medicine
    International journal of molecular sciences
  • 2012
TLDR
The α7 nAChR is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system and is suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia.
Chapter 4 Peptide and Protein Neurotoxin Toolbox in Research on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
TLDR
An overview of various α-neurotoxins (so-called three-finger toxins) is presented below showing the structural differences between them, as well as the benefits of their current application for identification and quantification of different nAChR subtypes at normal state and at various pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkin‐ son’s diseases, psychiatric diseases and nicotine addiction.
Snake alpha-Neurotoxins and the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
TLDR
New facets in toxinology have significantly broadened the scope of alpha-neurotoxins in scientific discovery as well as their therapeutic potential, and this review looks back at the historical milestones of this research.
Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early Origin of Venom in Snakes
TLDR
The first complete amino acid sequence of a colubrid toxin is provided, which is called α-colubritoxin, isolated from the Asian ratsnake Coelognathusradiatus, an archetypal nonvenomous snake as sold in pet stores, to support the role of venom as a key evolutionary innovation in the early diversification of advanced snakes and provide evidence that forces a fundamental rethink of the very concept of nonvenoms.
Marine Natural Products Acting on the Acetylcholine-Binding Protein and Nicotinic Receptors: From Computer Modeling to Binding Studies and Electrophysiology
TLDR
The results confirm the utility of the modeling studies on AChBPs in a search for natural compounds with cholinergic activity and demonstrate the presence of the latter in the analyzed marine biological sources.
β‐Cardiotoxin: a new three‐finger toxin from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom with beta‐blocker activity
Snake venoms have provided a number of novel ligands with therapeutic potential. We have constructed a partial cDNA library from the mRNA of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom gland tissue and
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
Prejunctional Actions of Cholinoceptor Agonists and Antagonists, and of Anticholinesterase Drugs
TLDR
The vexed question as to whether prejunctional cholinoceptors exist at the neuromuscular junction, and if so, what physiological function they might serve is discussed.
Does α-Bungarotoxin Inhibit Motor Endplate Acetylcholinesterase?
TLDR
Re-examine the effect of α-bungarotoxin by using intact acetylcholinesterase in the motor endplate in order to test the hypothesis and to establish the specificity of binding of the toxin.
Selective antagonism to succinylcholine‐induced depolarization by α‐bungarotoxin with respect to the mode of action of depolarizing agents
TLDR
It is concluded that the sustained depolarization of the endplate by S Ch results largely from an action on the perijunctional receptor in mice and, unlike cats, the neuromuscular block by SCh is not due to theDepolarization per se but rather to a direct attenuation of endplate potential.
The Action of Snake Venoms on Nerve and Muscle
TLDR
Snake venoms, especially of Elapidae and Hydrophiidae, have been known for centuries to produce symptoms relevant to nervous systems in the envenomed subject, and nature has chosen this vital system as a target for the effective toxic action during evolution.
Effects of chronic treatment with various neuromuscular blocking agents on the number and distribution of acetylcholine receptors in the rat diaphragm.
TLDR
The study of acetylcholine receptors in the end‐plate and non‐end‐plate areas of the rat diaphragm concluded that the numbers of junctional and extrajunctional acetylCholine receptors are regulated in different ways, and the possible role of acetelcholine is discussed.
Run‐down of neuromuscular transmission during repetitive nerve activity by nicotinic antagonists is not due to desensitization of the postsynaptic receptor
TLDR
The results suggest that the e.p.p.'s run‐down and tetanic fade induced by nicotinic antagonists are due to a slow kinetic blockade of presynaptic receptors and confirm that the i.p‐down is not produced by a use‐dependent failure of postsynaptic Nicotinic receptors.
Turnover of junctional and extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors of the rat diaphragm
TLDR
The turnover of acetylcholine receptors at end-plate and non–end-plate zones (extrajunctional) is examined to shed more light on the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle.
Use of a snake venom toxin to characterize the cholinergic receptor protein.
  • J. Changeux, M. Kasai, C. Lee
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1970
alpha-Bungarotoxin, a polypeptide of mol wt 8000 purified from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus, blocks irreversibly and specifically the excitation by cholinergic agonists on the isolated
...
1
2
3
4
...