Longitudinal survey of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid (kdr) in Mali, West Africa, and evidence of its emergence in the Bamako form of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

Abstract

Studies aimed at monitoring the spread of knockdown resistance to pyrethroids (kdr) in time and space are particularly useful for detecting barriers to gene flow among the chromosomal and molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. We used a recently developed polymerase chain reaction assay to estimate changes in kdr frequency that occurred in several mixed-form… (More)

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