The study aim was to describe the emergence of carbapenem resistance and clonal complexes (CC), defined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), in Acinetobacter baumannii in a surveillance system for meningitis. Starting in 1996 in an urban setting of Brazil, surveillance detected meningitis by Acinetobacter sp for the first time in 2002. Up to 2008, 35 isolates were saved. Carbapenem resistance emerged in 2006, reaching 70% of A. baumannii isolates in 2008, including one that was colistin resistant. A. baumannii belonged to CC113/79 (University of Oxford/Institute Pasteur schemes), CC235/162 and CC103/15. Dissemination of infections resistant to all antimicrobial agents may occur in the future.