Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers.

@article{Lyman2001LongitudinalSO,
  title={Longitudinal study of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers.},
  author={Stephen L Lyman and Glenn S. Fleisig and John W. Waterbor and Ellen Funkhouser and L V Pulley and James R. Andrews and Edmund Osinski and Jeffrey M. Roseman},
  journal={Medicine and science in sports and exercise},
  year={2001},
  volume={33 11},
  pages={
          1803-10
        }
}
PURPOSE Previous studies among young pitchers have focused on the frequency and description of elbow injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of elbow and shoulder complaints in young pitchers and to identify the associations between pitch types, pitch volume, and other risk factors for these conditions. METHODS A prospective cohort study of 298 youth pitchers was conducted over two seasons. Each participant was contacted via telephone after each game pitched to… 
Effect of Pitch Type, Pitch Count, and Pitching Mechanics on Risk of Elbow and Shoulder Pain in Youth Baseball Pitchers
TLDR
Pitchers in this age group should be cautioned about throwing breaking pitches (curveballs and sliders) because of the increased risk of elbow and shoulder pain and limitations on pitches thrown in a game and in a season can also reduce the risk of pain.
Risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball players
TLDR
History of elbow pain, pitcher position, catcher position, and longer training hours per week were associated with both types of pain, and history of shoulder pain was associated with shoulder pain but not elbow pain.
Risk Factors for Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in Adolescent Baseball Pitchers
TLDR
The factors with the strongest associations with injury were overuse and fatigue, and high pitch velocity and participation in showcases were also associated with increased risk for injury.
Epidemiology of shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball players
TLDR
Investigation of risk factors for shoulder and elbow pain in child and adolescent baseball players found shoulder pain was associated with increased age while elbow pain was related to increased age, increased years of baseball experience, and playing catcher.
Risk-Prone Pitching Activities and Injuries in Youth Baseball
TLDR
Pitching-related arm tiredness and arm pain were associated with increased risk of pitching-related injuries, but pitching on a travel baseball club, playing baseball exclusively, or playing catcher were not associated with arm problems.
Predictors of elbow torque among professional baseball pitchers.
Predictors of Elbow Torque Among Youth and Adolescent Baseball Pitchers
TLDR
Among youth and adolescent pitchers, fastballs generate the highest elbow torque while curveballs generated the greatest arm speed, and increasing age and size of a pitcher’s arm were protectors against elbow torque.
Youth baseball players with elbow and shoulder pain have both low back and knee pain: a cross-sectional study
TLDR
Both low back and knee pain were significantly associated with elbow and/or shoulder pain in youth baseball players, and Clinicians should check the complaints of the trunk and lower extremities as well as those of the elbow and shoulder for preventing severe injuries in youth Baseball players.
Association of Maximum Pitch Velocity and Elbow Injury in Professional Baseball Pitchers
TLDR
A statistically significant association between maximum pitch velocity and elbow injury was noted in this study, providing further support of existing theories about injury in baseball.
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